Modeling Preharvest and Harvest Interventions for Escherichia coli O157 Contamination of Beef Cattle Carcasses
ABSTRACT Field studies evaluating the effects of multiple concurrent preharvest interventions for Escherichia coli O157 are logistically and economically challenging; however, modeling techniques may provide useful information on these effects while also identifying crucial information gaps that can guide future research. We constructed a risk assessment model with data obtained from a systematic search of scientific literature. Parameter distributions were incorporated into a stochastic Monte Carlo modeling framework to examine the impacts of different combinations of preharvest and harvest interventions for E. coli O157 on the risk of beef carcass contamination. We estimated the risk of E. coli O157 carcass contamination conditional on preharvest fecal prevalence estimates, inclusion of feed additive(s) in the diet, vaccination for E. coli O157, transport and lairage effects, hide intervention(s), and carcass intervention(s). Prevalence parameters for E. coli O157 were assumed to encompass potential effects of concentration; therefore, concentration effects were not specifically evaluated in this study. Sensitivity analyses revealed that fecal prevalence, fecal-to-hide transfer, hide-to-carcass transfer, and carcass intervention efficacy significantly affected the risk of carcass contamination (correlation coefficients of 0.37, 0.56, 0.58, and -0.29, respectively). The results indicated that combinations of preharvest interventions may be particularly important for supplementing harvest interventions during periods of higher variability in fecal shedding prevalence (i.e., summer). Further assessments of the relationships among fecal prevalence and concentration, hide contamination, and subsequent carcass contamination are needed to further define risks and intervention impacts for E. coli O157 contamination of beef.
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ABSTRACT: Due to the expense of monitoring multiple serotypes of Escherichia coli at slaughter, a study was conducted at a beef abattoir in southern Alberta to determine relationships between E. coli and E. coli O157:H7 on hides. Swab samples were collected from carcasses immediately prior to hide removal over 8 weeks in summer (n = 591) and winter (n = 686). Detection of E. coli was highest in summer (P < 0.05), although detection of E. coli O157:H7 did not differ by season. Numbers of E. coli did not vary by season, but were affected by slaughter plant hygiene schedules. E. coli O157:H7 was more likely (P < 0.001) to be detected on hides of carcasses with the most E. coli (>3.5 log CFU/50 cm(2)). For E. coli < 3.5 log CFU/50 cm(2), the likelihood of detecting E. coli O157:H7 did not differ. Consequently, for 83% of carcasses, there was no relationship between numbers of E. coli and detection of E. coli O157:H7 on hides.Journal of food protection 07/2013; 76(7):1250-4. DOI:10.4315/0362-028X.JFP-12-527 · 1.80 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Human illness due to infections with Escherichia coli O157 is a serious health concern. Infection occurs through direct contact with infected animals or their faeces, through contaminated food or water and/or through person-to-person transmission. A reduction in faecal E. coli O157 shedding in cattle might reduce the burden of human infections. We used systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the efficacy of direct-fed microbials (DFM), compared with placebo or no treatment, fed during the pre-harvest stage of production in reducing faecal E. coli O157 shedding in beef cattle during field trials. Four electronic databases, Nebraska Beef Reports and review article reference lists were searched. A total of 16 publications assessing faecal shedding at the end of the trial and/or throughout the trial period were included. The majority of publicly disseminated trials evaluated the prevalence of E. coli O157 faecal shedding; only two evaluated the concentration of organisms in faeces. The prevalence of faecal E. coli O157 shedding in cattle is significantly reduced by DFM treatments (summary effect size for all DFM – OR = 0.46; CI = 0.36–0.60). The DFM combination Lactobacillus acidophilus (NP51) and Propionibacterium freudenreichii (NP24) was more efficacious in reducing the prevalence of faecal E. coli O157 shedding at the time of harvest and throughout the trial period compared with the group of other DFM, although this difference was not statistically significant. Furthermore, we found that the combination [NP51 and NP24] treatment was more efficacious in reducing the prevalence of faecal E. coli O157 shedding at the time of harvest and throughout the trial period when fed at the dose of 109 CFU/animal/day than any lesser amount, although this difference was not statistically significant. Feeding beef cattle DFM during the pre-harvest stage of production reduces the prevalence of E. coli O157 faecal shedding and might effectively reduce human infections.Zoonoses and Public Health 04/2014; 62(2). DOI:10.1111/zph.12112 · 2.07 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Pens of cattle with high Escherichia coli O157:H7 (STEC O157) prevalence at harvest may present a greater risk to food safety than pens of lower prevalence. Vaccination of live cattle against STEC O157 has been proposed as an approach to reduce STEC O157 prevalence in live cattle. Our objective was to create a stochastic simulation model to evaluate the effectiveness of pre-harvest interventions. We used the model to compare STEC O157 prevalence distributions for summer- and winter-fed cattle to summer-fed cattle immunized with a type III secreted protein (TTSP) vaccine. Model inputs were an estimate of vaccine efficacy, observed frequency distributions for number of animals within a pen, and pen-level faecal shedding prevalence for summer and winter. Uncertainty about vaccine efficacy was simulated using a log-normal distribution (mean = 58%, SE = 0.14). Model outputs were distributions of STEC O157 faecal pen prevalence of summer-fed cattle unvaccinated and vaccinated, and winter-fed cattle unvaccinated. The simulation was performed 5000 times. Summer faecal prevalence ranged from 0% to 80% (average = 30%). Thirty-six per cent of summer-fed pens had STEC O157 prevalence >40%. Winter faecal prevalence ranged from 0% to 60% (average = 10%). Seven per cent of winter-fed pens had STEC O157 prevalence >40%. Faecal prevalence for summer-fed pens vaccinated with a 58% efficacious vaccine product ranged from 0% to 52% (average = 13%). Less than one per cent of vaccinated pens had STEC O157 prevalence >40%. In this simulation, vaccination mitigated the risk of STEC O157 faecal shedding to levels comparable to winter, with the major effects being reduced average shedding prevalence, reduced variability in prevalence distribution, and a reduction in the occurrence of the highest prevalence pens. Food safety decision-makers may find this modelling approach useful for evaluating the value of pre-harvest interventions.Zoonoses and Public Health 07/2013; DOI:10.1111/zph.12069 · 2.07 Impact Factor