Pesticide exposure and serum organochlorine residuals among testicular cancer patients and healthy controls
ABSTRACT The incidence of testicular cancer (TC) has been increasing worldwide during the last decades. The reasons of the increase remains unknown, but recent findings suggest that organochlorine pesticides (OPs) could influence the development of TC. A hospital-based case-control study of 50 cases and 48 controls was conducted to determine whether environmental exposure to OPs is associated with the risk of TC, and by measuring serum concentrations of OPs, including p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) isomer and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in participants. A significant association was observed between TC and household insecticide use (odds ratio [OR] = 3.01, 95 % CI: 1.11-8.14; OR(adjusted) = 3.23, 95 % CI: 1.15-9.11). Crude and adjusted ORs for TC were also significantly associated with higher serum concentrations of total OPs (OR = 3.15, 95 % CI: 1.00-9.91; OR(adjusted) = 3.34, 95 % CI: 1.09-10.17) in cases compared with controls. These findings give additional support to the results of previous research that suggest that some environmental exposures to OPs may be implicated in the pathogenesis of TC.
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ABSTRACT: The etiology of testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) is poorly understood. Recent epidemiological findings suggest that, TGCT risk is determined very early in life, although the available data are still conflicting. The rapid growth of the testes during puberty may be another period of vulnerability. Body size has received increasing attention as possible risk factor for TC. To clarify the relation of body size and its anthropometric variables to TGCT risk, the authors analyzed data from 272 cases and 382 controls with regard to height (cm), weight (Kg), and body mass index (BMI; kg/m(2)). Overall, participants in the highest quartile of height were more likely to be diagnosed with TGCTs than participants in the lowest quartile of height, OR 2.22 (95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.25-3.93; adjusted; p(trend) = 0.033). Moreover, histological seminoma subgroup was significantly associated with tallness, very tall men (>182 cm) having a seminoma TGCT risk of OR = 2.44 (95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.19-4.97; adjusted; p(trend) = 0.011). There was also a significant inverse association of TGCT with increasing BMI (p(trend) = 0.001; age-adjusted analysis) and this association was equally present in both histological subgroups. These preliminary results indicate that testicular cancer (TC) is inversely associated with BMI and positively associated with height, in particular with seminoma subtype. Several studies have reported similar findings on body size. As adult height is largely determined by high-calorie intake in childhood and influenced by hormonal factors at puberty, increased attention to postnatal exposures in this interval may help elucidate the etiology of TGCTs.Frontiers in Endocrinology 11/2012; 3:144. DOI:10.3389/fendo.2012.00144
- Toxicology Letters 09/2009; 189. DOI:10.1016/j.toxlet.2009.06.537 · 3.36 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The incidence of testicular cancer has been increasing over the past several decades in many developed countries. The reasons for the increases are unknown because the risk factors for the disease are poorly understood. Some research suggests that in utero exposures, or those in early childhood, are likely to be important in determining an individual's level of risk. However, other research suggests that exposure to various factors in adolescence and adulthood is also linked to the development of testicular cancer. Of these, two adult occupational exposures-fire fighting and aircraft maintenance--and one environmental exposure (to organochlorine pesticides) are likely to be associated with increased risk of developing testicular cancer. By contrast, seven of the identified factors--diet, types of physical activity, military service, police work as well as exposure to ionizing radiation, electricity and acrylamide--are unlikely to increase the risk of developing testicular cancer. Finally, seven further exposures--to heat, polyvinyl chloride, nonionizing radiation, heavy metals, agricultural work, pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls as well as marijuana use--require further study to determine their association with testicular cancer.Nature Reviews Urology 04/2012; 9(6):339-49. DOI:10.1038/nrurol.2012.61 · 4.52 Impact Factor