Whole-exome sequencing identifies ALMS1, IQCB1, CNGA3, and MYO7A mutations in patients with Leber congenital amaurosis.
ABSTRACT It has been well documented that mutations in the same retinal disease gene can result in different clinical phenotypes due to difference in the mutant allele and/or genetic background. To evaluate this, a set of consanguineous patient families with Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) that do not carry mutations in known LCA disease genes was characterized through homozygosity mapping followed by targeted exon/whole-exome sequencing to identify genetic variations. Among these families, a total of five putative disease-causing mutations, including four novel alleles, were found for six families. These five mutations are located in four genes, ALMS1, IQCB1, CNGA3, and MYO7A. Therefore, in our LCA collection from Saudi Arabia, three of the 37 unassigned families carry mutations in retinal disease genes ALMS1, CNGA3, and MYO7A, which have not been previously associated with LCA, and 3 of the 37 carry novel mutations in IQCB1, which has been recently associated with LCA. Together with other reports, our results emphasize that the molecular heterogeneity underlying LCA, and likely other retinal diseases, may be highly complex. Thus, to obtain accurate diagnosis and gain a complete picture of the disease, it is essential to sequence a larger set of retinal disease genes and combine the clinical phenotype with molecular diagnosis.
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ABSTRACT: We assessed a large consanguineous Pakistani family (PKAB157) segregating early onset low vision problems. Funduscopic and electroretinographic evaluation of affected individuals revealed juvenile cone-rod dystrophy (CRD) with maculopathy. Other clinical symptoms included loss of color discrimination, photophobia and nystagmus. Whole-exome sequencing, segregation and haplotype analyses demonstrated that a transition variant (c.955T>C; p.(Cys319Arg)) in CNGA3 co-segregated with the CRD phenotype in family PKAB157. The ability of CNGA3 channel to influx calcium in response to agonist, when expressed either alone or together with the wild-type CNGB3 subunit in HEK293 cells, was completely abolished due to p.Cys319Arg variant. Western blotting and immunolocalization studies suggest that a decreased channel density in the HEK293 cell membrane due to impaired folding and/or trafficking of the CNGA3 protein is the main pathogenic effect of the p.Cys319Arg variant. Mutant alleles of the human cone photoreceptor cyclic nucleotide-gated channel (CNGA3) are frequently associated with achromatopsia. In rare cases, variants in CNGA3 are also associated with cone dystrophy, Leber's congenital amaurosis and oligo cone trichromacy. The identification of predicted p.(Cys319Arg) missense variant in CNGA3 expands the repertoire of the known genetic causes of CRD and phenotypic spectrum of CNGA3 alleles.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 23 July 2014; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2014.136.European journal of human genetics: EJHG 07/2014; DOI:10.1038/ejhg.2014.136 · 3.56 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) causes severe visual impairment and blindness very early in life. Mutant alleles of several genes acting in different pathways, of which all have critical roles for normal retinal function, were involved in LCA development. The purpose of this study was to use genome-wide genotyping to identify LCA-causing loci in two Turkish families. Genome-wide genotyping and haplotype analysis were performed for prioritization of candidate genes for mutation screening in families with LCA. Identified informative critical choromosomal regions obtained by homozygosity mapping from the families were searched for overlapping of any LCA causative genes. Corresponding clinical phenotypes of the patients with identified mutations were evaluated. In this study, two families were shown to be linked to two different LCA loci covering retinol dehydrogenase 12 (RDH12) and aryl-hydrocarbon-interacting protein-like1 (AIPL1) genes. Mutation screening revealed a novel p.Gln141* mutation in the AIPL1 gene and a previously described p.Thr49Met mutation in the RDH12 gene in a homozygous state. Our patients with the RDH12 mutation had the distinct macular coloboma sign, and the patient with the AIPL1 mutation developed microphthalmia and severe widespread retinal pigment epithelial atrophy, in contrast to previously reported cases. It is currently evident that mutation screening needs to be done in at least 18 genes known to be associated with LCA. Thus, homozygosity mapping is an alternative technique to improve the molecular diagnosis in LCA, which is a group of genetically and clinically heterogeneous diseases causing retinal degeneration. The patients without mutation in known genes may further be analyzed by using next-generation sequencing.DNA and Cell Biology 08/2014; DOI:10.1089/dna.2014.2554 · 1.99 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In view of their high degree of genetic heterogeneity, inherited retinal diseases (IRDs) pose a significant challenge for identifying novel genetic causes. Thus far, more than 200 genes have been found to be mutated in IRDs, which together contain causal variants in >80% of the cases. Accurate genetic diagnostics is particularly important for isolated cases, in which X-linked and de novo autosomal dominant variants are not uncommon. In addition, new gene- or mutation-specific therapies are emerging, underlining the importance of identifying causative mutations in each individual. Sanger sequencing of selected genes followed by cost-effective targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) can identify defects in known IRD-associated genes in the majority of the cases. Exome NGS in combination with genetic linkage or homozygosity mapping studies can aid the identification of the remaining causal genes. As these are thought to be mutated in <1% of the cases, validation through functional modeling in, for example, zebrafish and/or replication through the genotyping of large patient cohorts is required. In the near future, whole genome NGS in combination with transcriptome NGS may reveal mutations that are currently hidden in the noncoding regions of the human genome.Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine 06/2014; DOI:10.1101/cshperspect.a017137 · 7.56 Impact Factor