We retrospectively analyzed the clinical and microbiological characteristics of adult patients with hematological malignancy and nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) infections from 2001 to 2010. During the study period, 50 patients with hematological malignancy and tuberculosis (TB) were also evaluated. Among 2,846 patients with hematological malignancy, 34 (1.2%) patients had NTM infections. Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex (13 patients, 38%) was the most commonly isolated species, followed by M. abscessus (21%), M. fortuitum (18%), and M. kansasii (18%). Twenty-six patients had pulmonary NTM infection and eight patients had disseminated disease. Neutropenia was more frequently encountered among patients with disseminated NTM disease (p = 0.007) at diagnosis than among patients with pulmonary disease only. Twenty-five (74%) patients received adequate initial antibiotic treatment. Five of the 34 patients died within 30 days after diagnosis. Cox regression multivariate analysis showed that chronic kidney disease (p = 0.017) and neutropenia at diagnosis (p = 0.032) were independent prognostic factors of NTM infection in patients with hematological malignancy. Patients with NTM infection had higher absolute neutrophil counts at diagnosis (p = 0.003) and a higher 30-day mortality rate (15% vs. 2%, p = 0.025) than TB patients. Hematological patients with chronic kidney disease and febrile neutropenia who developed NTM infection had significant worse prognosis than patients with TB infection.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) are known to cause pulmonary, extra-pulmonary, systemic/disseminated, and cutaneous and subcutaneous infections. The erroneous detection of RGM that is based solely on microscopy, solid and liquid cultures, Bactec systems, and species-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) may produce misleading results. Thus, inappropriate therapeutic measures may be used in dermatologic settings, leading to increased numbers of skin deformity cases or recurrent infections. Molecular tools such as the sequence analyses of 16S rRNA, rpoB and hsp65 or PCR restriction enzyme analyses, and the alternate gene sequencing of the superoxide dismutase (SOD) gene, dnaJ, the 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacers (ITS), secA, recA1, dnaK, and the 32-kDa protein gene have shown promising results in the detection of RGM species. PCR restriction enzyme analyses (PRA) work better than conventional methods at identifying species that are closely related. Recently introduced molecular tools such as matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), pyrosequencing, DNA chip technology, and Beacon probes-combined PCR probes have shown comparable results in the detection of various species of RGM. Closely related RGM species (e.g., Mycobacterium fortuitum, M. chelonae, and M. abscessus) must be clearly differentiated using accurate molecular techniques because their therapeutic responses are species-specific. Hence, this paper reviews the following aspects of RGM: (i) its sources, predisposing factors, clinical manifestations, and concomitant fungal infections; (ii) the risks of misdiagnoses in the management of RGM infections in dermatological settings; (iii) the diagnoses and outcomes of treatment responses in common and uncommon infections in immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients; (iv) conventional versus current molecular methods for the detection of RGM; (v) the basic principles of a promising MALDI-TOF MS, sampling protocol for cutaneous or subcutaneous lesions and its potential for the precise differentiation of M. fortuitum, M. chelonae, and M. abscessus; and (vi) improvements in RGM infection management as described in the recent 2011 Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines, including interpretation criteria of molecular methods and antimicrobial drug panels and their break points [minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs)], which have been highlighted for the initiation of antimicrobial therapy.
European Journal of Clinical Microbiology 11/2012; 32(2). DOI:10.1007/s10096-012-1766-8 · 2.67 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We describe a rare case of thyroidal Epstein-Barr virus-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the elderly (EBV(+)DLBCLe) in which diagnosis was difficult and spontaneous esophageal fistula developed. A 79-year-old woman presented with acute swelling of the anterior neck with tenderness, general fatigue, and continual fever. Malignant lymphoma of the thyroid was suspected. Histologically, the thyroid lesion showed extensive necrosis, including a few Ziehl-Neelsen-positive substances. No evidence of tuberculosis was detected by any other examinations. While performing examinations, left recurrent nerve palsy and a tumorous lesion in the pharynx appeared. Computed tomography and gastrointestinal fiberscopy revealed esophageal fistula. Biopsy specimens from the pharyngeal lesion showed diffuse proliferation of large atypical lymphoid cells that were strongly positive for CD20 and EBV early RNAs. The final diagnosis was thyroidal EBV(+)DLBCLe with infiltration of surrounding organs. The esophageal fistula had healed 6 months after beginning treatment of EBV(+)DLBCLe.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose:
Oncohematological patients undergoing chemotherapy who have latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) are at a high risk of developing active tuberculosis (TB). The identification and treatment of these patients can prevent LTBI progressing to active TB. This study analyzed the degree of adherence with and safety of the treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (TLTBI) in oncohematological patients undergoing antineoplastic chemotherapy.
This is a retrospective study of a cohort of oncohematological patients receiving TLTBI and antineoplastic chemotherapy simultaneously, between January 2007 and June 2010. The proportions of toxicity and adherence to TLTBI in these patients were compared with a non-oncohematological control group, matched for age, sex, and year in which the TLTBI was started. In addition, a minimum 2-year follow-up was carried out for all patients.
A total of 105 patients who received TLTBI were included, 21 of whom had received antineoplastic chemotherapy simultaneously. The mean age of the patients was 63 years. There were no significant baseline differences in transaminase values. The percentages of patients completing treatment were 76.2% in the control group and 71.4% in the oncohematological group [risk ratio (RR): 1.07, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.79-1.43]. The voluntary dropout proportion was similar in both groups (12.3 vs. 11.8%, RR: 1.05, 95% CI: 0.25-4.42). Treatment was discontinued because of toxicity in three oncohematological patients and in 11 patients from the control group (RR: 1.14; 95% CI: 035-3.66). No patient developed TB during the follow-up period.
The safety of TLTBI is not influenced by simultaneous antineoplastic chemotherapy in oncohematological patients.
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