Mycobacterial infections in adult patients with hematological malignancy.
ABSTRACT We retrospectively analyzed the clinical and microbiological characteristics of adult patients with hematological malignancy and nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) infections from 2001 to 2010. During the study period, 50 patients with hematological malignancy and tuberculosis (TB) were also evaluated. Among 2,846 patients with hematological malignancy, 34 (1.2%) patients had NTM infections. Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex (13 patients, 38%) was the most commonly isolated species, followed by M. abscessus (21%), M. fortuitum (18%), and M. kansasii (18%). Twenty-six patients had pulmonary NTM infection and eight patients had disseminated disease. Neutropenia was more frequently encountered among patients with disseminated NTM disease (p = 0.007) at diagnosis than among patients with pulmonary disease only. Twenty-five (74%) patients received adequate initial antibiotic treatment. Five of the 34 patients died within 30 days after diagnosis. Cox regression multivariate analysis showed that chronic kidney disease (p = 0.017) and neutropenia at diagnosis (p = 0.032) were independent prognostic factors of NTM infection in patients with hematological malignancy. Patients with NTM infection had higher absolute neutrophil counts at diagnosis (p = 0.003) and a higher 30-day mortality rate (15% vs. 2%, p = 0.025) than TB patients. Hematological patients with chronic kidney disease and febrile neutropenia who developed NTM infection had significant worse prognosis than patients with TB infection.
- SourceAvailable from: Luis Anibarro[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease that causes more than 1 million deaths worldwide every year. In addition, it is estimated that one third of the world population is infected with M. tuberculosis in a latent state, which involves an eventual risk of progressing to active TB disease. Patients with immunodeficiencies, such as those suffering from haematological malignancies, have a greater risk of progressing to TB disease once infected. It is estimated that the Relative Risk of TB disease in patients with hematologic malignancies is 2-40 times that of the general population. The diagnosis of TB in these patients is often challenging as they often present clinical characteristics that are distinct to those of patients without any other underlying disease. Mortality due to TB is higher. Therefore, it is recommended to diagnose latent TB infection and consider preventive therapy that could avoid the progression from a latent state to active TB disease. There are currently two methods for diagnosing latent TB infection: the Tuberculin Skin Test (TST) and the Interferon-Gamma Release Assays (IGRA). Due to the lack of sensitivity in patients with immunodeficient conditions, a combined TST-IGRA testing is probably the best way for latent TB diagnosis in order to gain sensitivity. Treatment of latent TB infection and TB disease should follow the general principles to that in the general population.Mediterranean Journal of Hematology and Infectious Diseases 01/2014; 6(1):e2014026.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Among 36 Mycobacterium masilliense and 22 M. abscessus identified by erm (41) PCR and sequencing analysis of rpoB and 23S rRNA genes, the rate of accurate differentiation between these two subspecies was 100% by cluster analysis of spectra generated by Bruker Biotyper matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry.Journal of clinical microbiology 07/2013; · 4.16 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Oncohematological patients undergoing chemotherapy who have latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) are at a high risk of developing active tuberculosis (TB). The identification and treatment of these patients can prevent LTBI progressing to active TB. This study analyzed the degree of adherence with and safety of the treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (TLTBI) in oncohematological patients undergoing antineoplastic chemotherapy. METHODS: This is a retrospective study of a cohort of oncohematological patients receiving TLTBI and antineoplastic chemotherapy simultaneously, between January 2007 and June 2010. The proportions of toxicity and adherence to TLTBI in these patients were compared with a non-oncohematological control group, matched for age, sex, and year in which the TLTBI was started. In addition, a minimum 2-year follow-up was carried out for all patients. RESULTS: A total of 105 patients who received TLTBI were included, 21 of whom had received antineoplastic chemotherapy simultaneously. The mean age of the patients was 63 years. There were no significant baseline differences in transaminase values. The percentages of patients completing treatment were 76.2 % in the control group and 71.4 % in the oncohematological group [risk ratio (RR): 1.07, 95 % confidence interval (CI): 0.79-1.43]. The voluntary dropout proportion was similar in both groups (12.3 vs. 11.8 %, RR: 1.05, 95 % CI: 0.25-4.42). Treatment was discontinued because of toxicity in three oncohematological patients and in 11 patients from the control group (RR: 1.14; 95 % CI: 035-3.66). No patient developed TB during the follow-up period. CONCLUSION: The safety of TLTBI is not influenced by simultaneous antineoplastic chemotherapy in oncohematological patients.Infection 06/2013; · 2.44 Impact Factor