Effect of RNAi-induced down regulation of nuclear factor kappa-B p65 on acute monocytic leukemia THP-1 cells in vitro and vivo.
ABSTRACT NF-κB p65 is found constitutively active in acute monocytic leukemia, and has been considered an important factor for poor prognosis. Therefore, develop specifically target p65 inhibitors will be substantial interest. Until now, although several p65 inhibitors are currently in preclinical and clinical development, none of them are targeting. In this study, siRNA targeting p65 was introduced into the acute monocytic leukemia cell line THP-1 and THP-1 xenograft tumors in nude mice, and then, we measured p65 mRNA and protein levels by real-time RT-PCR and Western blotting, and levels of related protein cyclin D1, Bc1-2, and SMRT by Western blotting. We also investigated the cell cycle and apoptosis via FCM, and cell proliferation by Cell Counting Kit-8 assay. We found that p65 siRNA could effectively reduce the p65 mRNA and protein expression, arrest cells in G0/G1 phase, inhibit the proliferation and increase the apoptosis of THP-1 cells, and intratumoral injection of p65 siRNA could suppress tumor growth in nude mice. We also found that when down regulation of p65, the expression of cyclin D1 and Bc1-2 decreased, and the expression of SMRT increased in vitro and vivo. All these findings suggest that NF-κB p65 maybe an attractive candidate for the therapeutic targeting of acute monocytic leukemia.
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ABSTRACT: To evaluate changes of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) during radioiodine 131 ((131)I) therapy and whether NF-κB inhibition could enhance (131)I-induced apoptosis in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) cells in a synergistic manner. Three human DTC cell lines were used. NF-κB inhibition was achieved by using a NF-κB inhibitor (Bay 11-7082) or by p65 siRNA transfection. Methyl-thiazolyl-tetrazolium assay was performed for cell viability assessment. DNA-binding assay, luciferase reporter assay, and Western blot were adopted to determine function and expression changes of NF-κB. Then NF-κB regulated anti-apoptotic factors XIAP, cIAP1, and Bcl-xL were measured. Apoptosis was analyzed by Western blot for caspase 3 and PARP, and by flow cytometry as well. An iodide uptake assay was performed to determine whether NF-κB inhibition could influence radioactive iodide uptake. The methyl-thiazolyl-tetrazolium assay showed significant decrease of viable cells by combination therapy than by mono-therapies. The DNA-binding assay and luciferase reporter assay showed enhanced NF-κB function and reporter gene activities due to (131)I, yet significant suppression was achieved by NF-κB inhibition. Western blot proved (131)I could increase nuclear NF-κB concentration, while NF-κB inhibition reduced NF-κB concentration. Western blot also demonstrated significant up-regulation of XIAP, cIAP1, and Bcl-xL after (131)I therapy. And inhibition of NF-κB could significantly down-regulate these factors. Finally, synergism induced by combined therapy was displayed by significant enhancements of cleaved caspase 3 and PARP from Western blot, and of Annexin V positively staining from flow cytometry. The iodine uptake assay did not show significant changes when NF-κB was inhibited. We demonstrated that (131)I could induce NF-κB activation, which would attenuate (131)I efficacy in DTC cells. NF-κB inhibition by Bay 11-7082 or by p65 siRNA transfection was effective in suppressing NF-κB regulated anti-apoptotic changes and in combined regimen apoptosis was achieved synergistically.PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(3):e33597. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Regulator of Cullins-1 (ROC1) or RING box protein-1 (RBX1) is an essential RING component of Cullin-RING ligase (CRL). Our previous studies showed that ROC1 is required for the growth of several cancer cell lines while ROC1 siRNA silencing inactivates CRL, leading to cell cycle arrest, cell senescence and/or apoptosis. However, it is completely unknown whether ROC1 knockdown triggers autophagic response by inactivating CRL. Moreover, the role of ROC1 in liver cancer remains elusive. In this study, we reported that ROC1 knockdown significantly inhibited the growth of liver cancer cells by sequentially and independently inducing autophagy and p21-dependent cell senescence. Mechanism analysis revealed that ROC1 silencing triggered autophagy by inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activity due to accumulation of mTOR-inhibitory protein Deptor, a substrate of CRL. Consistently, Deptor knockdown significantly blocked autophagy response upon ROC1 silencing. Biologically, autophagy response upon ROC1 silencing was a survival signal, and blockage of autophagy pathway sensitized cancer cells to apoptosis. Finally, we demonstrated that ROC1 was overexpressed in hepatocellular carcinomas, which is associated with poor prognosis of liver cancer patients. These findings suggest that ROC1 is an appealing drug target for liver cancer and provide a proof-of-concept evidence for a novel drug combination of ROC1 inhibitor and an autophagy inhibitor for effective treatment of liver cancer by enhancing apoptosis.Cell Death and Differentiation advance online publication, 31 August 2012; doi:10.1038/cdd.2012.113.Cell death and differentiation 08/2012; · 8.24 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Mitochondria are the most important sensor for apoptosis. Extracellular adenosine is well reported to induce apoptosis of tumor cells. Here we found that extracellular adenosine suppresses the cell growth by induction of apoptosis in BEL-7404 liver cancer cells, and identified a novel mechanism that extracellular adenosine triggers apoptosis by increasing Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) production and mitochondrial membrane dysfunction in the cells. We observed that adenosine increases ROS production, activates c-Caspase-8 and -9 and Caspase effectors, c-Caspase-3 and c-PARP, induces accumulation of apoptosis regulator Bak, decreases Bcl-xL and Mcl-1, and causes the mitochondrial membrane dysfunction and the release of DIABLO, Cytochrome C, and AIF from mitochondria to cytoplasm in the cells; ROS inhibitor, NAC significantly reduces adenosine-induced ROS production; it also shows the same degree of blocking on adenosine-induced loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and apoptosis. Our study first observed that adenosine increases ROS production in tumor cells and identified the positive feedback loop for ROS-mediated mitochondrial membrane dysfunction which amplifies the death signals in the cells. Our findings indicated ROS production and mitochondrial dysfunction play a key role in adenosine induced apoptosis of 7404 cells.Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 04/2014; · 2.28 Impact Factor