[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In vitro and in vivo studies have identified that low-frequency ultrasound (US) and microbubbles (MBs) mediate tumor inhibitory effects. However, the application of US in the clinical setting remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the clinically therapeutic effect of 20 kHz US in combination with MBs for the treatment of hepatic carcinoma. A 71-year-old male with a hepatic malignant tumor was admitted to Nantong University Affiliated Nantong Tumor Hospital (Nantong, China). The patient was subsequently sonicated with 20 kHz US and MBs over a period of five days. The low-frequency US parameters were set at 20 kHz, 2 W/cm(2), duty cycle 40% (on 2 sec, off 3 sec) for a duration of 5 min each day for a total of five days. Computed tomography (CT), contrast-enhanced US (CEUS) and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) tests were performed to evaluate the therapeutic effects. Although the tumor size increased marginally on CT from 5.4 to 5.6 cm after US treatment, the intensity and enhanced-areas on the CT scans and CEUS decreased. The abdominal lymph node decreased in size, from 2.2 to 1.9 cm, and CA19-9 levels decreased from the pretreatment value of 2,007 to 734 U/ml. Therapy with low-frequency US combined with MBs may exhibit an antivasculature effect and may be used as a palliative treatment for patients with unresectable hepatic malignant tumors.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Advances in our understanding of the complex mechanisms of immune regulation and the interactions between tumor cells and the immune system have provided a solid foundation for advancing cancer immunotherapy and have inspired novel therapeutic strategies. Optimizing the effectiveness of immunotherapy will require targeting the antitumor immune response at multiple levels, and this may be achieved through synergistic combinations. Examples include combining two cancer vaccines to achieve a “prime and boost” effect, combining two immune checkpoint inhibitors, combining immunotherapy with targeted agents, or combining immunotherapy with low-dose chemotherapy or radiation. Immune checkpoint inhibitors, such as ipilimumab and nivolumab, will likely play an important role in the future of immunotherapy. The ability to block key pathways by which tumor cells seek to evade or suppress the immune response is critical to realizing the potential of cancer immunotherapy. Other exciting advances include recombinant oncolytic viruses and adoptive transfer of chimeric antigen receptor T cells. However, many challenges remain if durable tumor eradication with minimal toxicity is to be achieved in a broader population of cancer patients.
Seminars in Oncology 09/2014; · 3.94 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mutations activating the receptor tyrosine kinase c-Kit occur commonly in melanomas arising on mucosal membranes and acral skin. Clinical studies have demonstrated that selective inhibition of c-Kit is effective in treating patients with c-Kit mutant gastrointestinal stromal tumors, but c-Kit inhibitor activity has been disappointing in c-Kit mutant melanoma patients. Activated c-Kit utilises phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signalling as the dominant effector of cell proliferation and survival with the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade serving as an ancillary survival pathway. We confirmed that these pathways are re-activated in melanoma cells with acquired resistance to c-Kit inhibitors and that these resistant sublines remain sensitive to the concurrent inhibition of MAPK and PI3K signalling. These findings suggest that durable responses in c-Kit mutant melanoma may require combination therapies that selectively inhibit critical downstream proliferative and survival pathways. We also discuss the interaction between targeted therapies and anti-tumor immune responses and the need to consider immunotherapies in new combinatorial treatment approaches.
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