Environmental concentrations of agricultural-use pesticide mixtures evoke primary and secondary stress responses in rainbow trout.
ABSTRACT The present study sought to determine whether environmentally realistic mixtures of agriculturally important pesticides are stressful to fish. Juvenile rainbow trout were exposed for 96 h to concentrations of a pesticide mixture found in a waterway that is the focus of salmon restoration efforts (Nicomekl River, BC, Canada). This mixture contained organochlorine, organophosphorus, phenylurea, and triazine classes of pesticides. Fish given a realistic mixture exposure (total concentration, 1.01 µg/L) had increased plasma cortisol concentration, packed red cell volume, hematocrit (Hct), as well as decreased white cell volume, leukocrit (Lct). Similar changes in Hct and Lct were apparent after exposure to a lower concentration (0.186 µg/L). Interestingly, no changes in plasma cortisol concentration, Hct, or Lct were noted after exposure to a higher concentration (13.9 µg/L). This suggests that the exposure likely impaired the mechanisms enabling the stress response. Across all exposures, plasma glucose concentration was related to plasma cortisol concentration, not to pesticide mixture concentration. This suggests that a secondary stress response may be more related to variability in individual primary stress response than to differences in pesticide exposure concentrations. In summary, the present study indicates that salmon living in agrichemical-contaminated waterways may be experiencing stress, and this may pose a threat to their survival.
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ABSTRACT: Laboratory tests were conducted in order to investigate the effects of individual and binary-combined commercial insecticides endosulfan, temephos, malathion and pirimiphos-methyl on the earthworm Eisenia andrei. The effects of individual insecticides were determined by measuring the activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), catalase (CAT) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST). After exposure to studied insecticides, dose-dependent decrease in AChE activity and dose-dependent increase in CAT activity was recorded. The activity of GST was without consistent dose-response reaction, but generally the investigated insecticides caused the increase in GST activity. In order to determine the effects of binary-combined mixtures, and interactions between the components in the mixture, the relationship between effective concentration of AChE inhibition for mixture and effective concentration of AChE inhibition for each component in the mixture was investigated. The obtained results showed additive effect for mixtures endosulfan+malathion; endosulfan+pirimiphos-methyl; temephos+malathion and temephos+pirimiphos-methyl, synergistic effect for mixture endosulfan+temephos and in the case of mixture malathion+pirimiphos-methyl the antagonistic effect was indicated.Environmental toxicology and pharmacology. 07/2013; 36(2):715-723.
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ABSTRACT: Two musical stimuli transmissions (Mozart and Romanza) as compared with white noise treatment or control, both resulted in significantly higher growth performance in juvenile (6.7 ± 0.12 g) rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) reared for 14 weeks. Carcass chemical composition and fatty acid composition (% of total fatty acids and mg/g carcass wet weight) did not differ among experimental treatments. The same was observed with regard to liver composition. Brain serotonin (5-HT) and its metabolite (5-HIAA) levels were increased in Mozart fish groups compared to all other treatments. However, serotonergic activity (as defined by the 5-HIAA: 5-HT ratio) for the Mozart groups was similar to control groups and was increased in Romanza and white noise fish groups. Brain dopaminergic activity (as defined by the DOPAC: DA ratio, i.e. dopamine metabolite to dopamine levels) was lower in Mozart compared to control fish groups. Differences were also observed as regards total carbohydrase and protease activity in several parts of the digestive tract. In conclusion, the results of the present data indicate that the musical stimuli transmitted were beneficial for the growth performance of rainbow trout. The fact that white noise treatment presented no major differences from control fish groups suggests that this specific stimulus was neither beneficially nor negatively perceived by rainbow trout, while it further supports the hypothesis that it is the musical stimuli per se that make all the difference.Aquacultural Engineering 01/2013; · 1.41 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The adsorption of 12 pesticides of the phenylurea family was studied by batch experiments in order to determine the adsorption coefficient, K d. The study was conducted in two soils chosen for their differences in organic matter and calcite contents. K d pesticide adsorption coefficients were higher for soil S1 than for soil S2 due to the presence of a higher organic matter content and a lower calcite content in soil S1. To identify pesticide properties governing retention, 18 molecular descriptors were considered. Class-specific quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) soil sorption models using one, two, and three descriptors were developed from our experimental data using linear regressions. One of the aims of this work was to check whether QSPR models that did not include literature values of K ow were able to predict K d coefficients in satisfactory agreement with our experimental data. The influence of the level of theory in determining K ow and polarisability predictors on the predictive performance of the model was also examined by comparing quantum chemistry and empirical (QikProp) approaches. The one-descriptor model using "quantum" polarisability α was found to perform almost as well as or better than the other models.Environmental Science and Pollution Research 04/2013; · 2.76 Impact Factor