Combined effects of 60 Hz electromagnetic field exposure with various stress factors on cellular transformation in NIH3T3 cells

Division of Radiation Effects, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul, Korea.
Bioelectromagnetics (Impact Factor: 1.86). 09/2011; 33(3):207-14. DOI: 10.1002/bem.20700
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Epidemiological studies have suggested that extremely low-frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF) are associated with an increased incidence of cancer. Studies using in vitro systems have reported mixed results for the effects of ELF-MF alone, and the World Health Organization (WHO) Research Agenda published in 2007 suggested that high priority research should include an evaluation of the co-carcinogenic effects of ELF-MF exposure using in vitro models. Here, the carcinogenic potential of ELF-MF exposure alone and in combination with various stress factors was investigated in NIH3T3 mouse fibroblasts using an in vitro cellular transformation assay. NIH3T3 cells were exposed to a 60 Hz ELF-MF (1 mT) alone or in combination with ionizing radiation (IR), hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂), or c-Myc overexpression, and the resulting number of anchorage-independent colonies was counted. A 4 h exposure of NIH3T3 cells to ELF-MF alone produced no cell transformation. Moreover, ELF exposure did not influence the transformation activity of IR, H₂O₂, or activated c-Myc in our in vitro assay system, suggesting that 1 mT ELF-MF did not affect any additive or synergistic transformation activities in combination with stress factors such as IR, H₂O₂, or activated c-Myc in NIH3T3 cells.

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    ABSTRACT: The principal objective of this study was to assess the DNA damage in a normal cell line system after exposure to 60 Hz of extremely low frequency magnetic field (ELF-MF) and particularly in combination with various external factors, via comet assays. NIH3T3 mouse fibroblast cells, WI-38 human lung fibroblast cells, L132 human lung epithelial cells, and MCF10A human mammary gland epithelial cells were exposed for 4 or 16 h to a 60-Hz, 1 mT uniform magnetic field in the presence or absence of ionizing radiation (IR, 1 Gy), H2O2 (50 μM), or c-Myc oncogenic activation. The results obtained showed no significant differences between the cells exposed to ELF-MF alone and the unexposed cells. Moreover, no synergistic or additive effects were observed after 4 or 16 h of pre-exposure to 1 mT ELF-MF or simultaneous exposure to ELF-MF combined with IR, H2O2, or c-Myc activation.
    Biophysik 12/2013; DOI:10.1007/s00411-013-0506-5 · 1.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Purpose: Genotoxic effects have been considered the gold standard to determine if an environmental factor is a carcinogen, but the currently available data for extremely low frequency time-varying magnetic fields (ELF-MFs) remain controversial. As an environmental stimulus, the effect of ELF-MF on cellular DNA may be subtle. Therefore, a more sensitive method and systematic research strategy are warranted to evaluate genotoxicity. Materials and methods: We investigated the effect of ELF-MFs in combination with ionizing radiation (IR) or H2O2 on the DNA damage response of expression of phosphorylated H2AX (γ-H2AX) and production of γ-H2AX foci in non-tumorigenic human cell systems consisting of human lung fibroblast WI38 cells and human lung epithelial L132 cells. Results: Exposure to a 60-Hz, 2 mT ELF-MFs for 6 h produced increased γ-H2AX expression, as well as γ-H2AX foci production, a common DNA double-strand break (DSB) marker. However, exposure to a 1 mT ELF-MFs did not have the same effect. Moreover, 2 mT ELF-MFs exposure potentiated the expression of γ-H2AX and γ-H2AX foci production when combined with IR, but not when combined with H2O2. Conclusions: ELF-MFs could affect the DNA damage response and, in combination with different stimuli, provide different effects on γ-H2AX.
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to assess whether exposure to the combination of an extremely low frequency magnetic field (ELF-MF; 60 Hz, 1 mT or 2 mT) with a stress factor, such as ionizing radiation (IR) or H2O2, results in genomic instability in non-tumorigenic human lung epithelial L132 cells. To this end, the percentages of G2/M-arrested cells and aneuploid cells were examined. Exposure to 0.5 Gy IR or 0.05 mM H2O2 for 9 h resulted in the highest levels of aneuploidy; however, no cells were observed in the subG1 phase, which indicated the absence of apoptotic cell death. Exposure to an ELF-MF alone (1 mT or 2 mT) did not affect the percentages of G2/M-arrested cells, aneuploid cells, or the populations of cells in the subG1 phase. Moreover, when cells were exposed to a 1 mT or 2 mT ELF-MF in combination with IR (0.5 Gy) or H2O2 (0.05 mM), the ELF-MF did not further increase the percentages of G2/M-arrested cells or aneuploid cells. These results suggest that ELF-MFs alone do not induce either G2/M arrest or aneuploidy, even when administered in combination with different stressors.


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Jul 30, 2014