Efficacy of pentoxifylline in prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy in angioplasty patients.
ABSTRACT Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is an adverse consequence of contrast media use that results in significant morbidity and mortality and adds significant costs to diagnostic and interventional cardiology procedures. Various pathophysiological mechanisms have been proposed for CIN and various agents have been tested for its prevention. There is currently a general agreement that adequate pre-procedure hydration constitutes the cornerstone of prevention, yet there are reports of the use of some other agents with various efficacies. We prospectively tested pentoxifylline (PTX), an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory drug, for CIN prevention in patients undergoing coronary angioplasty.
In this prospective, randomized, single-blind, single-center clinical trial, 286 consecutive patients were randomly assigned to the control group (n = 146), with routine treatment and no PTX, or the study group (n = 140), with routine treatment and PTX, 400 mg/tid from 24 h before to 24 h after coronary angioplasty. Serum creatinine was measured before and 2 days after the procedure. The primary end point was the occurrence of CIN within 48 h.
The control and PTX groups were comparable in the overall predicted risk of CIN. Also, the type and volume of the contrast agent were not significantly different between the two groups. Following angioplasty, CIN occurred in 20 (13.69%) patients in the control group and in 12 (8.5%) patients in the study group; the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.17). Additionally, there was no mortality and need for hemodialysis in either group.
In angioplasty patients, the prophylactic oral use of PTX could be recommended for CIN prevention, although no statistically significant protective effect was documented.
- SourceAvailable from: Nakul Sinha[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Various strategies for the prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy (CN) have been studied, with conflicting results. Adenosine may play an important role in the pathogenesis of CN. This study prospectively assessed the role of oral theophylline in the prevention of CN. We randomized into two groups 70 patients with diabetes mellitus who were undergoing coronary angiography (CAG) with high-osmolar contrast media. Group I (n=35) underwent routine CAG, and group II (n=35) received oral theophylline 200 mg b.d. 24 h before and for 48 h after CAG. Serum Na(+), K(+), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, osmolality, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and urinalysis were performed before and after CAG. The (99m)Tc-DTPA-clearance method was used to assess GFR. Following angiography, patients in the control group showed a significant rise in serum creatinine (1.19+/-0.23 vs 1.44+/-0.32 mg/dl, P=0.003) and BUN (13.95+/-2.61 vs 17.55+/-3.9 mg/dl, P=0.01) along with a fall in GFR (85.4+/-14.7 vs 66.85+/-14.8 ml/min, P=0.008). The mean percentage fall in GFR was 35.8%. There was no significant change in serum creatinine (1.16+/-0.18 vs 1.24+/-0.21 mg/dl), BUN (12.8+/-3.36 vs 14.8+/-2.5 mg/dl) and GFR (86.8+/-15.8 vs 80.3+/-16.0 ml/min) in those receiving theophylline. No patient in the theophylline group had a >25% rise in serum creatinine, compared with 7/35 in the control group (P=0.017). In the control group, 11/35 (31%) developed CN, as demonstrated by a >/=25% fall in GFR, while only one patient in the theophylline group had a fall in GFR (P=0.004). None of the pre-angiographic variables could predict the development of CN. Following the use of high-osmolar contrast media for routine CAG, CN may develop in 31% of diabetic patients. Patients who received prophylactic oral theophylline had a significantly lower risk of CN than those who did not.Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 11/2002; 17(11):1936-41. · 3.37 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We sought to develop a simple risk score of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Although several risk factors for CIN have been identified, the cumulative risk rendered by their combination is unknown. A total of 8,357 patients were randomly assigned to a development and a validation dataset. The baseline clinical and procedural characteristics of the 5,571 patients in the development dataset were considered as candidate univariate predictors of CIN (increase >or=25% and/or >or=0.5 mg/dl in serum creatinine at 48 h after PCI vs. baseline). Multivariate logistic regression was then used to identify independent predictors of CIN with a p value <0.0001. Based on the odds ratio, eight identified variables (hypotension, intra-aortic balloon pump, congestive heart failure, chronic kidney disease, diabetes, age >75 years, anemia, and volume of contrast) were assigned a weighted integer; the sum of the integers was a total risk score for each patient. The overall occurrence of CIN in the development set was 13.1% (range 7.5% to 57.3% for a low [<or=5] and high [>or=16] risk score, respectively); the rate of CIN increased exponentially with increasing risk score (Cochran Armitage chi-square, p < 0.0001). In the 2,786 patients of the validation dataset, the model demonstrated good discriminative power (c statistic = 0.67); the increasing risk score was again strongly associated with CIN (range 8.4% to 55.9% for a low and high risk score, respectively). The risk of CIN after PCI can be simply assessed using readily available information. This risk score can be used for both clinical and investigational purposes.Journal of the American College of Cardiology 10/2004; 44(7):1393-9. · 14.09 Impact Factor
- Saudi journal of kidney diseases and transplantation: an official publication of the Saudi Center for Organ Transplantation, Saudi Arabia 12/2008; 19(6):985-6.