Fullerene C₆₀ as a multifunctional system for drug and gene delivery.

Center of Excellence for Nanostructured Materials (CENMAT), Department of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, and INSTM, Unit of Trieste University of Trieste, Piazzale Europa 1, 34127 Trieste, Italy.
Nanoscale (Impact Factor: 6.74). 09/2011; 3(10):4035-41. DOI: 10.1039/c1nr10783f
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The fullerene family, and especially C(60), has delighted the scientific community during the last 25 years with perspective applications in a wide variety of fields, including the biological and the biomedical domains. Several biomedical uses have been explored using water-soluble C(60)-derivatives. However, the employment of fullerenes for drug delivery is still at an early stage of development. The design and synthesis of multifunctionalized and multimodal C(60) systems able to cross the cell membranes and efficiently deliver active molecules is an attracting challenge that involves multidisciplinary strategies. Promising results have emerged in the last years, bringing fullerenes again to the front of interest. Herein, the state of the art of this emerging field is presented and illustrated with some of the most representative examples.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In vitro toxicological studies together with atomistic molecular dynamics simulations show that occupational co-exposure with C60 fullerene may strengthen the health effects of organic industrial chemicals. The chemicals studied are acetophenone, benzaldehyde, benzyl alcohol, m-cresol, and toluene which can be used with fullerene as reagents or solvents in industrial processes. Potential co-exposure scenarios include a fullerene dust and organic chemical vapor, or a fullerene solution aerosolized in workplace air. Unfiltered and filtered mixtures of C60 and organic chemicals represent different co-exposure scenarios in in vitro studies where acute cytotoxicity and immunotoxicity of C60 and organic chemicals are tested together and alone by using human THP-1-derived macrophages. Statistically significant co-effects are observed for an unfiltered mixture of benzaldehyde and C60 that is more cytotoxic than benzaldehyde alone, and for a filtered mixture of m-cresol and C60 that is slightly less cytotoxic than m-cresol. Hydrophobicity of chemicals correlates with co-effects when secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α is considered. Complementary atomistic molecular dynamics simulations reveal that C60 co-aggregates with all chemicals in aqueous environment. Stable aggregates have a fullerene-rich core and a chemical-rich surface layer, and while essentially all C60 molecules aggregate together, a portion of organic molecules remains in water.
    PLoS ONE 12/2014; 9(12):e114490. · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aim of the paper was to provide the physico-chemical characterization of key process leading to amplification of antitumor effect of antibiotic Doxorubicin (Dox) in vivo and in vitro and occurring at molecular level through complexation with C60 fullerene. A wide range of physico-chemical tools was used such as UV/Vis and NMR spectroscopies, atomic force microscopy, isothermal titration calorimetry and zeta-potential methods. The unusual thermodynamic behavior of the complexation process was reported, featuring unexpected and, to certain extent, contradictory experimental observations. The explanation of the obtained results was proposed resulting in creation of a general view on aromatic drug binding with C60 fullerene. Based on these results some important practical outcomes for anticancer therapy were formulated.
    Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics 09/2014; 16(42):23164. · 4.20 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Derivatives of fullerene (C60) as photosensitizers have rarely been studied as delivery carrier materials. The focus of this study was to explore the potential advantages of diadduct malonic acid-fullerene (DMA-C60) as delivery carrier materials and combination of chemo–phototherapy of some tumors. In this study, DMA-C60 and docetaxel (DTX) were coentrapped in micelles (MCs) (DMA-C60/DTX-MC). The addition of DMA-C60 could obviously improve static stability and decrease critical MC concentration of DTX-MC without hemolysis. The sustained release of DTX and DMA-C60 could be achieved, following Higuichi and first-order model, respectively. DMA-C60 could still produce reactive oxygen species efficiently in HeLa cells after encapsulation in MC. The addition of DMA-C60 under irradiation caused DTX-MC more stronger cytotoxicity, cell cycle changes, and more early apoptotic cells in vitro. More importantly, after intravenous injection, the addition of DMA-C60 in DTX-MC could result in 2.25-fold and 4.57-fold longer mean residence time compared with DTX-MC and Duopafei®, increase drug intratumoral distribution and decrease drug distribution in heart and kidney, and enhance antitumor effect under irradiation without body weight loss. These results suggested tremendous promise of DMA-C60 as carrier materials of MC and significant advantages in combination of chemo–phototherapy of some tumors. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci
    Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 08/2014; · 3.13 Impact Factor