Functional compounds in fermented buckwheat sprouts.
ABSTRACT Fermented buckwheat sprouts (FBS) are used as multifunctional foods. Their production process includes fermentation with lactic acid bacteria. The major strains were found to include Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus pentosus, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, and Pediococcus pentosaceus in an investigation of the lactic acid bacteria. We searched for the functional components, and nicotianamine (NA) and 2″-hydroxynicotianamine (HNA) were identified as angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. NA and HNA increased during fermentation. Indole-3-ethanol was identified as an antioxidant (a SOD active substance), and may have been generated from tryptophan during fermentation because it was not contained in green buckwheat juice. A safety test demonstrated that FBS contained were safe functional food components, showing negative results in buckwheat allergy tests. Any buckwheat allergy substances might have been degraded during the fermentation process.
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of yeast polysaccharide (YPS) on growth and flavonoid accumulation in sprout cultures of Fagopyrum tataricum (tartary buckwheat). Without obvious change in the appearance of the sprouts, the exogenous YPS notably stimulated the production of functional metabolites in F. tataricum sprouts, and the stimulation effect was concentration-dependent. With 400 mg/L of YPS applied to the sprout cultures on day 6, the total rutin and quercentin content was effectively increased to 42.8 mg/gdw, or about 1.4-fold in comparison with the control of 31.2 mg/gdw. Feeding with 800 mg/L of YPS on day 9, the sprouts biomass was increased by about 8% compared to the control culture (0.99 gdw/100 sprouts versus 0.92 gdw/100 sprouts). Moreover, the present study revealed that the accumulation of these bioactive metabolites resulted from the stimulation of the phenylpropanoid pathway by YPS treatment. It could be an effective strategy for improving the functional quality of the F. tataricum sprouts provided with YPS.Molecules 12/2012; 17(10):11335-45. DOI:10.3390/molecules171011335 · 2.10 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Biosynthesis of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) via the indole-3-pyruvic acid pathway involves three kinds of enzymes, aminotransferase encoded by aspC, indole-3-pyruvic acid decarboxylase encoded by ipdC, and indole-3-acetic acid dehydrogenase encoded by iad1. The ipdC from Enterobacter cloacae ATCC 13047, aspC from Escherichia coli, and iad1 from Ustilago maydis were cloned and expressed under control of tac and sod promoters in E. coli. According to SDS-PAGE and enzyme activity, IpdC and Iad1 were good expression under the control of Ptac, whereas, AspC was efficiently expressed by Psod originating from Corynebacterium glutamicum. The activities of IpdC, AspC, and Iad1 from the crude extracts of recombinant E. coli Top 10 were 215.6, 5.7, and 272.1 nmol/min/mg-protein, respectively. The recombinant E. coli DH5α expressing IpdC, AspC, and Iad1 produced about 1.1 g/l of IAA and 0.13 g/l of tryptophol (TOL) after 48 hr of cultivation in LB medium with 2 g/l tryptophan. To improve IAA production, a tnaA gene mediating indole formation from tryptophan was deleted. As a result, E. coli IAA68 with expression of the three genes produced 1.8 g/l of IAA, which is a 1.6-fold increase compared to wild-type DH5α harboring the same plasmids. Moreover, the complete conversion of tryptophan to IAA was achieved by E. coli IAA68. Finally, E. coli IAA68 produced 3.0 g/l of IAA after 24 hr cultivation in LB medium supplemented with 4 g/l of tryptophan.Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 09/2013; 23(12). DOI:10.4014/jmb.1308.08082 · 1.32 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) is rich in anti-hypertensive compounds. This study investigated the effect of lactic fermented buckwheat sprouts (neo-FBS) on level, identification, and potency of blood pressure-lowering (BPL) compounds. Single oral dose of 1.0 mg/kg body weight buckwheat sprouts (BS) in spontaneously hypertensive rats did not show significant BPL activity, whereas neo-FBS significantly decreased blood pressure. HPLC of neo-FBS identified two peaks absent in the profile of BS. The peak exhibiting potent BPL activity was fractionated, and six peptides (DVWY, FDART, FQ, VAE, VVG, and WTFR) and tyrosine were identified by LC-MS/MS and Edman degradation. Single oral dose administration of the peptides revealed significant BPL effect of all the peptides, with the most potent being DVWY, FQ, and VVG. DVWY, VAE, and WTFR are novel. This study demonstrates that lactic fermentation of BS produces new, highly potent anti-hypertensive peptides, and increases active compounds, GABA and tyrosine already present in BS.Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 02/2013; 61(12). DOI:10.1021/jf305157y · 3.11 Impact Factor