Apart from Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous, pink colony-forming yeasts have not been examined as a pigmentation source in captive animals. In this study, aquatic yeasts were screened with a view to abundances of carotenoids. Phylogenetic analyses of these caroetnoid-rich yeasts based on large subunit ribosomal RNA gene (LSU rDNA) partial sequences showed that all belonged to the order Sporidiobolales. Both the qualitative and the quantitative differences in carotenoids between the yeasts appeared to be consistent with their phylogenetic affiliations. This information might be useful in the selection of pigment-rich yeasts containing specific carotenoids from a large number of strains. We also found, for the first time, the potential of a pigment-rich Rhodotorula strain as a colorant for aquaculture. The integuments of tilapia and carp fed the alkali-treated cells of strain Rhodotorula dairenensis Sag 17 were pigmented after 3 months of cultivation. The fish integuments retained the yeast carotenes shortly after the start of feeding, and were converted to the fish-specific xanthophylls in vivo.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Astaxanthin (AST) is a carotenoid that is found in marine animals and vegetables. Several previous studies have demonstrated that AST exhibits a wide variety of biological activities including antioxidant, antitumor, and anti-Helicobacter pylori effects. In this study, attention was focused on the antioxidant effect of AST. The object of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of AST in endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU) in rats. In addition, the effect of AST on endotoxin-induced nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha production in a mouse macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7) was studied in vitro.
EIU was induced in male Lewis rats by a footpad injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). AST or prednisolone was administered intravenously at 30 minutes before, at the same time as, or at 30 minutes after LPS treatment. The number of infiltrating cells and protein concentration in the aqueous humor collected at 24 hours after LPS treatment was determined. RAW 264.7 cells were pretreated with various concentrations of AST for 24 hours and subsequently stimulated with 10 microg/mL of LPS for 24 hours. The levels of PGE2, TNF-alpha, and NO production were determined in vivo and in vitro.
AST suppressed the development of EIU in a dose-dependent fashion. The anti-inflammatory effect of 100 mg/kg AST was as strong as that of 10 mg/kg prednisolone. AST also decreased production of NO, activity of inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS), and production of PGE2 and TNF-alpha in RAW264.7 cells in vitro in a dose-dependent manner.
This study suggests that AST has a dose-dependent ocular anti-inflammatory effect, by the suppression of NO, PGE2, and TNF-alpha production, through directly blocking NOS enzyme activity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Three novel species of the genus Rhodotorula are described. Rhodotorula benthica sp. nov. (type strain JCM 10901(T) = SY-91(T)) and Rhodotorula calyptogenae sp. nov. (type strain JCM 10899(T) = SY-86(T)) were respectively isolated from the tubeworm Lamellibrachia sp. and the giant white clam Calyptogena sp., collected from the deep-sea floor of the Pacific Ocean off Japan. Rhodotorula lysiniphila sp. nov. (type strain JCM 5951(T)) is proposed for strains isolated previously in Japan and Pakistan. The three species were placed phylogenetically into a species complex comprising Rhodotorula laryngis, Rhodotorula minuta, Rhodotorula pallida and Rhodotorula slooffiae. R. minuta and R. slooffiae are closely related in both the D1/D2 region of the 26S rDNA and the internal transcribed spacer and 5.8S rDNA regions. R. benthica and R. laryngis were closer to R. pallida based on the D1/D2 region. Other relationships were not clear.
International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 06/2003; 53(Pt 3):897-903. · 2.51 Impact Factor
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