Insulin-regulated aminopeptidase deficiency provides protection against ischemic stroke in mice.
ABSTRACT Recent studies have demonstrated that angiotensin IV (Ang IV) provides protection against brain injury caused by cerebral ischemia. Ang IV is a potent inhibitor of insulin-regulated aminopeptidase (IRAP). Therefore, we examined the effect of IRAP gene inactivation on neuroprotection following transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) in mice. IRAP knockout mice and wild-type controls were subjected to 2 h of transient MCAo using the intraluminal filament technique. Twenty-four hours after reperfusion, neurological deficits of the stroke-induced mice were assessed and infarct volumes were measured by TTC staining. The cerebral infarct volume was significantly reduced in the IRAP knockout mice compared to wild-type littermates with corresponding improvement in neurological performance at 24 h post-ischemia. An increase in compensatory cerebral blood flow during MCAo was observed in the IRAP knockout animals with no differences in cerebral vascular anatomy detected. The current study demonstrates that deletion of the IRAP gene protects the brain from ischemic damage analogous to the effect of the IRAP inhibitor, Ang IV. This study indicates that IRAP is potentially a new therapeutic target for the development of treatment for ischemic stroke.
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ABSTRACT: The model of suggests that the frontal cortex (FC) and the cardiovascular function are reciprocally and asymmetrically connected. We analyzed several angiotensinase activities in the heart left ventricle (VT) of control and captopril-treated SHR, and we search for a relationship between these activities and those determined in the left and right FC. Captopril was administered in drinking water for 4 weeks. Samples from the left VT and from the left and right FC were obtained. Soluble and membrane-bound enzymatic activities were measured fluorometrically using arylamides as substrates. The weight of heart significantly decreased after treatment with captopril, mainly, due to the reduction of the left VT weight. In the VT, no differences for soluble activities were observed between control and treated SHR. In contrast, a generalized significant reduction was observed for membrane-bound activities. The most significant correlations between FC and VT were observed in the right FC of the captopril-treated group. The other correlations, right FC versus VT and left FC versus VT in controls and left FC versus VT in the captopril group, were few and low. These results confirm that the connection between FC and cardiovascular system is asymmetrically organized.02/2013; 2013:156179. DOI:10.1155/2013/156179
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ABSTRACT: The hexapeptide angiotensin IV (Ang IV) induces diverse biological effects such as memory enhancement and protection against ischemic stroke. Studies on the mechanism of Ang IV however are hampered by its instability and its lack of selectivity. The high-affinity binding site for Ang IV is the insulin-regulated aminopeptidase (IRAP, EC 126.96.36.199), but Ang IV also acts as a weak agonist for the Ang II-receptor (AT(1)), implying the need for stable and highly selective Ang IV-analogues. Here we present the screening of novel Ang IV-analogues, selected on basis of high affinity for IRAP, high selectivity (compared to aminopeptidase N and the AT(1) receptor) and resistance against proteases. The selected compound IVDE77 possesses a number of advantages compared to Ang IV: (i) it has a 40 times higher affinity for IRAP (K(i) 1.71nM), (ii) it does not activate the AT(1) receptor, (iii) it is easily radiolabeled with tritium and (iv) it is resistant to proteolysis, even in human plasma. In addition, pre-treatment of intact CHO-K1 cells with IVDE77 led to a virtually complete inhibition of subsequent intracellular accumulation of [(3)H]IVDE77-IRAP complexes. IVDE77 thus represents the first Ang IV-analogue able to abolish IRAP-availability completely at the cell surface in vitro. In summary, IVDE77 is a useful tool for the detection of IRAP under physiological conditions, and may contribute to elucidating the mechanism of Ang IV to ascertain which functions are IRAP-dependent.European journal of pharmacology 01/2013; 702(1-3). DOI:10.1016/j.ejphar.2013.01.026
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ABSTRACT: In this study, we provide evidence for the first time that membrane-bound endopeptidase neurolysin is upregulated in different parts of mouse brain affected by focal ischemia-reperfusion in a middle cerebral artery occlusion model of stroke. Radioligand binding, enzymatic and immunoblotting experiments in membrane preparations of frontoparietal cortex, striatum, and hippocampus isolated from the ischemic hemisphere of mouse brain 24 h after reperfusion revealed statistically significant increase (≥2-fold) in quantity and activity of neurolysin compared to sham-operated controls. Cerebellar membranes isolated from the ischemic hemisphere served as negative control supporting the observations that upregulation of neurolysin occurs in post-ischemic brain regions. This study also documents sustained functional upregulation of neurolysin in frontoparietal cortical membranes up to 7 days after stroke, which appears not to be transcriptionally or translationally regulated, but rather depends on translocation of cytosolic neurolysin to the membranes and mitochondria. Considering diversity of endogenous neurolysin substrates (neurotensin, bradykinin, angiotensins I/II, substance P, hemopressin, dynorphin A(1-8), metorphamide, somatostatin) and the well-documented role of these peptidergic systems in pathogenesis of stroke, resistance to ischemic injury and/or post-stroke brain recovery, our findings suggest that neurolysin may play a role in processes modulating the brain's response to stroke and its recovery after stroke. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.Journal of Neurochemistry 10/2013; 129(1). DOI:10.1111/jnc.12513