Insulin-regulated aminopeptidase deficiency provides protection against ischemic stroke in mice.
ABSTRACT Recent studies have demonstrated that angiotensin IV (Ang IV) provides protection against brain injury caused by cerebral ischemia. Ang IV is a potent inhibitor of insulin-regulated aminopeptidase (IRAP). Therefore, we examined the effect of IRAP gene inactivation on neuroprotection following transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) in mice. IRAP knockout mice and wild-type controls were subjected to 2 h of transient MCAo using the intraluminal filament technique. Twenty-four hours after reperfusion, neurological deficits of the stroke-induced mice were assessed and infarct volumes were measured by TTC staining. The cerebral infarct volume was significantly reduced in the IRAP knockout mice compared to wild-type littermates with corresponding improvement in neurological performance at 24 h post-ischemia. An increase in compensatory cerebral blood flow during MCAo was observed in the IRAP knockout animals with no differences in cerebral vascular anatomy detected. The current study demonstrates that deletion of the IRAP gene protects the brain from ischemic damage analogous to the effect of the IRAP inhibitor, Ang IV. This study indicates that IRAP is potentially a new therapeutic target for the development of treatment for ischemic stroke.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The proteolytic processing of neuropeptides has an important regulatory function and the peptide fragments resulting from the enzymatic degradation often exert essential physiological roles. The proteolytic processing generates, not only biologically inactive fragments, but also bioactive fragments that modulate or even counteract the response of their parent peptides. Frequently, these peptide fragments interact with receptors that are not recognized by the parent peptides. This review discusses tachykinins, opioid peptides, angiotensins, bradykinins, and neuropeptide Y that are present in the central nervous system and their processing to bioactive degradation products. These well-known neuropeptide systems have been selected since they provide illustrative examples that proteolytic degradation of parent peptides can lead to bioactive metabolites with different biological activities as compared to their parent peptides. For example, substance P, dynorphin A, angiotensin I and II, bradykinin, and neuropeptide Y are all degraded to bioactive fragments with pharmacological profiles that differ considerably from those of the parent peptides. The review discusses a selection of the large number of drug-like molecules that act as agonists or antagonists at receptors of neuropeptides. It focuses in particular on the efforts to identify selective drug-like agonists and antagonists mimicking the effects of the endogenous peptide fragments formed. As exemplified in this review, many common neuropeptides are degraded to a variety of smaller fragments but many of the fragments generated have not yet been examined in detail with regard to their potential biological activities. Since these bioactive fragments contain a small number of amino acid residues, they provide an ideal starting point for the development of drug-like substances with ability to mimic the effects of the degradation products. Thus, these substances could provide a rich source of new pharmaceuticals. However, as discussed herein relatively few examples have so far been disclosed of successful attempts to create bioavailable, drug-like agonists or antagonists, starting from the structure of endogenous peptide fragments and applying procedures relying on stepwise manipulations and simplifications of the peptide structures.Medicinal Research Reviews 06/2014; · 8.13 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: It is quite well established that activation of the so-called protective arms of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), involving both AT2 and Mas receptors, provides a counter-regulatory role to AT1 receptor overactivity that may drive pathological changes in the cardiovascular system. In this brief review, we will focus on recent evidence that identifies at least three different pathways that may be effective in the setting of stroke and may be complementary with AT1 receptor blockade. Such mechanisms include AT2 receptor stimulation, Mas receptor stimulation and insulin-regulated aminopeptidase blockade. This report highlights recent data demonstrating striking neuroprotective effects in preclinical models of stroke targeting each of these pathways, which may pave the way for translational opportunities in this field.Current Hypertension Reports 07/2014; 16(7):440. · 3.90 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We examined the effect of chronic administration of angiotensin IV (AngIV) on the vascular alterations induced by type 1 diabetes in mice. Diabetes was induced in adult Swiss mice with a single injection of streptozotocin (STZ). Mice were treated subcutaneously with AngIV (1.4 mg/kg/day) either immediately following diabetes induction (preventive treatment), or treated with AngIV (0.01 to 1.4 mg/kg), alone or with the AT4 receptor antagonist Divalinal or the AT2 receptor antagonist PD123319, for two weeks after 4 weeks of diabetes duration (rescue treatment). Acetylcholine-induced, endothelium-dependent relaxation (EDR) was measured in isolated aortic rings preparations. Histomorphometric measurements of the media thickness were obtained, and nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide anion production were measured by electron paramagnetic resonance in aorta and mesenteric arteries. The effect of diabetes on mesenteric vascular alterations was also examined in genetically modified mice lacking the AT2 receptor. Induction of diabetes with STZ was associated with a progressive decrease of EDR and an increase of the aortic and mesenteric media thickness already significant after 4 weeks and peaking at week 6. Immediate treatment with AngIV fully prevented the diabetes-induced endothelial dysfunction. Rescue treatment with AngIV implemented after 4 weeks of diabetes dose-dependently restored a normal endothelial function at week 6. AngIV blunted the thickening of the aortic and mesenteric media, and reversed the diabetes-induced changes in NO and O2[bullet] - production by the vessels. The protective effect of AngIV on endothelial function was completely blunted by cotreatment with Divalinal, but not with PD123319. In contrast, both the pharmacological blockade and genetic deletion of the AT2 receptor reversed the diabetes-induced morphologic and endothelial alteration caused by diabetes. The results suggest an opposite contribution of AT2 and AT4 receptors to the vascular alterations caused by streptozotocin-induced diabetes in mice, since chronic stimulation of AT4 by AngIV and inhibition of AT2 similarly reverse diabetes-induced endothelial dysfunction and hypertrophic remodeling, and increase NO bioavailability.Cardiovascular Diabetology 02/2014; 13(1):40. · 3.71 Impact Factor