The association between maternal alcohol use and smoking in early pregnancy and congenital cardiac defects.
ABSTRACT Alcohol use is an extremely prevalent but preventable risk factor among women seeking to become pregnant. Many women continue to use alcohol in the early stages of pregnancy before they are aware they are pregnant. Research is unclear about the role of maternal alcohol use during pregnancy and congenital cardiac defects, one of the leading types of birth defects in the United States.
Data from the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring Survey (PRAMS) were used to examine maternal alcohol use and its association with congenital cardiac defects. Various measures of alcohol use in the 3 months prior to pregnancy, as well as smoking and other risk factors for congenital cardiac defects, were linked to birth certificate data for nine states over a 10-year period (1996-2005). In this case-control study, cases included infants with a congenital cardiac defect indicated on the birth certificate, and the control group consisted of healthy, normal weight infants with no indication of a congenital abnormality on their birth certificate. Complex samples logistic regression models were used to study the relationships between several measures of alcohol use, including binge drinking and binge drinking on more than once occasion, and the interaction between alcohol use and smoking with the odds of congenital cardiac defects.
A significant increase in congenital cardiac defects was found among mothers who reported binge drinking more than once in the 3 months prior to pregnancy compared to mothers who did not report binge drinking (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.99, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.19-7.51). There was a significant interaction between any binge drinking or binge drinking more than once and cigarette use, which corresponded to a substancial increase in congenital cardiac defects (aOR 12.65, 95% CI 3.54-45.25 and aOR 9.45, 95% CI 2.53-35.31, respectively).
Multiple episodes of maternal binge drinking in early pregnancy may increase the odds of congenital cardiac defects, and we found this relationship was more dramatic when combined with maternal smoking.
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ABSTRACT: We conducted this meta-analysis to address the open question of a possible association between maternal socioeconomic status and congenital heart defects (CHDs).PLoS ONE 10/2014; 9(10):e111056. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0111056 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The prognosis of children with congenital heart defects(CHDs) continues to improve with advancing surgical techniques; however, lack of information about modifiable risk factors for malformations in cardiovascular development impeded the prevention of CHDs. We investigated an association between maternal lifestyle factors and the risk of CHDs, because epidemiological studies have reported conflicting results regarding maternal lifestyle factors and the risk of CHDs recently. A review published on 2007 provided a summary of maternal exposures associated with an increased risk of CHDs. As part of noninherited risk factors, we conducted a brief overview of studies on the evidence linking common maternal lifestyle factors, specifically smoking, alcohol, illicit drugs, caffeine, body mass index and psychological factors to the development of CHDs in offspring. Women who smoke and have an excessive body mass index(BMI) during pregnancy are suspected to be associated with CHDs in offspring. Our findings could cause public health policy makers to pay more attention to women at risk and could be used in the development of population-based prevention strategies to reduce the incidence and burden of CHDs. However, more prospective studies are needed to investigate the association between maternal lifestyle factors and CHDs.Italian Journal of Pediatrics 11/2014; 40(1):85. DOI:10.1186/s13052-014-0085-3
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ABSTRACT: The objective of this study is to understand health and demographic trends among mothers and infants in Maine relative to the goals of Healthy People 2020. Pregnancy risk assessment monitoring system (PRAMS) data from Maine for 2000-2010 were used to determine yearly values of pregnancy-related variables. Means (for continuous variables) and percentages (for categorical variables) were calculated using the survey procedures in SAS. Linear trend analysis was applied with study year as the independent variable. The slope and significance of the trend were then calculated. Over the study period, new mothers in Maine became better educated but the fraction of households with incomes <$20,000/year remained stagnant. Maternal prepregnancy BMI increased. Average pregnancy weight gain decreased but the number of women whose pregnancy weight gain was within the recommended range was unchanged. The rates of smoking and alcohol consumption (before and during pregnancy) increased. The Caesarean section rate rose and the fraction of infants born premature (<37 wks gestation) or underweight (<2500 gms) remained unchanged. The fraction of infants who were breast-fed increased. These results suggest that, despite some positive trends, Maine faces significant challenges in meeting Healthy People 2020 goals.Journal of pregnancy 01/2014; 2014:780626. DOI:10.1155/2014/780626