Alcohol use is an extremely prevalent but preventable risk factor among women seeking to become pregnant. Many women continue to use alcohol in the early stages of pregnancy before they are aware they are pregnant. Research is unclear about the role of maternal alcohol use during pregnancy and congenital cardiac defects, one of the leading types of birth defects in the United States.
Data from the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring Survey (PRAMS) were used to examine maternal alcohol use and its association with congenital cardiac defects. Various measures of alcohol use in the 3 months prior to pregnancy, as well as smoking and other risk factors for congenital cardiac defects, were linked to birth certificate data for nine states over a 10-year period (1996-2005). In this case-control study, cases included infants with a congenital cardiac defect indicated on the birth certificate, and the control group consisted of healthy, normal weight infants with no indication of a congenital abnormality on their birth certificate. Complex samples logistic regression models were used to study the relationships between several measures of alcohol use, including binge drinking and binge drinking on more than once occasion, and the interaction between alcohol use and smoking with the odds of congenital cardiac defects.
A significant increase in congenital cardiac defects was found among mothers who reported binge drinking more than once in the 3 months prior to pregnancy compared to mothers who did not report binge drinking (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.99, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.19-7.51). There was a significant interaction between any binge drinking or binge drinking more than once and cigarette use, which corresponded to a substancial increase in congenital cardiac defects (aOR 12.65, 95% CI 3.54-45.25 and aOR 9.45, 95% CI 2.53-35.31, respectively).
Multiple episodes of maternal binge drinking in early pregnancy may increase the odds of congenital cardiac defects, and we found this relationship was more dramatic when combined with maternal smoking.
"During the auto-oxidation, hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) is produced which can react non-enzymatically to form highly reactive hydroxyl radicals causing oxidative damage to proteins and DNA (Waterson and Murray-Lyon, 1989). In addition, dopamine can be rapidly oxidized into quinones and semiquinones, which are then converted into toxic radicals such as superoxide and nitrogen radicals through redox cycling that further results in oxidative stress (Mateja et al., 2012). Once formed, free radicals interact with micronutrient leading to relentless cytotoxicity. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aims
There is a rapid increase in the use of methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and its structural congeners/analogues globally. MDMA and MDMA-analogues have been synthesized illegally in furtive dwellings and are abused due to its addictive potential. Furthermore, MDMA and MDMA-analogues have shown to induce several adverse effects. Hence, understanding the mechanisms mediating this neurotoxic insult of MDMA-analogues is of immense importance for the public health in the world.
We synthesized and investigated the neurotoxic effects of MDMA & its analogues (4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), 2, 6-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDMA), and N-ethyl-3, 4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDEA). The stimulatory or the dopaminergic agonist effects of MDMA and MDMA-analogues were elucidated using the established 6-hydroxydopamine lesioned animal model. Additionally, we also investigated the neurotoxic mechanisms of MDMA and MDMA-analogues on mitochondrial complex-I activity and reactive oxygen species generation.
MDMA and MDMA-analogues exhibited stimulatory activity as compared to amphetamines and also induced several behavioral changes in the rodents. MDMA and MDMA-analogues enhanced the reactive oxygen generation and inhibited mitochondrial complex-I activity which can lead to neurodegeneration. Hence the mechanism of neurotoxicity, MDMA and MDMA-analogues can enhance the release of monoamines, alter the monoaminergic neurotransmission, augment oxidative stress and mitochondrial abnormalities leading to neurotoxicity.
Thus, our study will help in developing effective pharmacological and therapeutic approaches for the treatment of MDMA and MDMA-analogues abuse.
Life sciences 04/2014; 101(1). DOI:10.1016/j.lfs.2014.02.010 · 2.70 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: At-risk drinking, cigarette smoking, obesity, diabetes, and frequent mental distress, as well as their co-occurrence in childbearing aged women, are risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcomes. This study estimated the prevalence of these five risk factors individually and in combination among nonpregnant women aged 18-44 years by demographic and psychosocial characteristics, with a focus on racial and ethnic disparities.
Data from the 2008 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) on nonpregnant women aged 18-44 years (n=54,612) were used to estimate the prevalences of five risk factors, pairs of co-occurring risk factors, and multiple risk factors for poor pregnancy outcomes.
The majority of women had at least one risk factor, and 18.7% had two or more risk factors. Having two or more risk factors was highest among women who were American Indian and Alaska Native (34.4%), had less than a high school education (28.7%), were unable to work (50.1%), were unmarried (23.3%), and reported sometimes, rarely, or never receiving sufficient social and emotional support (32.8%). The most prevalent pair of co-occurring risk factors was at-risk drinking and smoking (5.7%).
The high proportion of women of childbearing age with preconception risk factors highlights the need for preconception care. The common occurrence of multiple risk factors suggests the importance of developing screening tools and interventions that address risk factors that can lead to poor pregnancy outcomes. Increased attention should be given to high-risk subgroups.
Journal of Women's Health 05/2012; 21(7):720-9. DOI:10.1089/jwh.2011.3259 · 2.05 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The China-Anhui Birth Cohort Study (C-ABCS) was set up to examine the delayed, cumulative and interactive effects of maternal environmental exposures on birth outcomes and children's development. The C-ABCS recruited pregnant women from six major cities of Anhui province, China, between November 2008 and October 2010. A range of data (including demographic, obstetric, occupational, nutritional and psychosocial factors) were collected by both interviews and laboratory tests. In each trimester, women's blood samples were drawn, and pregnancy complications were abstracted from physician's medical records. By the end of 2011, birth outcomes/birth defects were observed/identified by clinicians within 12 months after the delivery of 11 421 singleton live births of six cities and those outcomes among the remaining 2033 live births are still being observed. In addition, 4668 children from Ma'anshan city will be further followed up during the pre-school period till they reach adolescence to obtain the data on familial environmental exposures as well as children's physical, psychological, behavioural and sexual development. The interview data and information on laboratory examinations are available on request from archives in the Anhui Provincial Key Laboratory of Population Health & Aristogenics.
International Journal of Epidemiology 06/2012; 42(3). DOI:10.1093/ije/dys085 · 9.18 Impact Factor
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