Penetration of anti-infective agents into pulmonary epithelial lining fluid: focus on antibacterial agents.
ABSTRACT The exposure-response relationship of anti-infective agents at the site of infection is currently being re-examined. Epithelial lining fluid (ELF) has been suggested as the site (compartment) of antimicrobial activity against lung infections caused by extracellular pathogens. There have been an extensive number of studies conducted during the past 20 years to determine drug penetration into ELF and to compare plasma and ELF concentrations of anti-infective agents. The majority of these studies estimated ELF drug concentrations by the method of urea dilution and involved either healthy adult subjects or patients undergoing diagnostic bronchoscopy. Antibacterial agents such as macrolides, ketolides, newer fluoroquinolones and oxazolidinones have ELF to plasma concentration ratios of >1. In comparison, β-lactams, aminoglycosides and glycopeptides have ELF to plasma concentration ratios of ≤1. Potential explanations (e.g. drug transporters, overestimation of the ELF volume, lysis of cells) for why these differences in ELF penetration occur among antibacterial classes need further investigation. The relationship between ELF concentrations and clinical outcomes has been under-studied. In vitro pharmacodynamic models, using simulated ELF and plasma concentrations, have been used to examine the eradication rates of resistant and susceptible pathogens and to explain why selected anti-infective agents (e.g. those with ELF to plasma concentration ratios of >1) are less likely to be associated with clinical treatment failures. Population pharmacokinetic modelling and Monte Carlo simulations have recently been used and permit ELF and plasma concentrations to be evaluated with regard to achievement of target attainment rates. These mathematical modelling techniques have also allowed further examination of drug doses and differences in the time courses of ELF and plasma concentrations as potential explanations for clinical and microbiological effects seen in clinical trials. Further studies are warranted in patients with lower respiratory tract infections to confirm and explore the relationships between ELF concentrations, clinical and microbiological outcomes, and pharmacodynamic parameters.
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ABSTRACT: The steady-state concentrations of clarithromycin and azithromycin in plasma were compared with concomitant concentrations in epithelial lining fluid (ELF) and alveolar macrophages (AM) obtained in intrapulmonary samples during bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage from 40 healthy, nonsmoking adult volunteers. Mean plasma clarithromycin, 14-(R)-hydroxyclarithromycin, and azithromycin concentrations were similar to those previously reported. Clarithromycin was extensively concentrated in ELF (range of mean +/- standard deviation concentrations, 34.4 +/- 29.3 microg/ml at 4 h to 4.6 +/- 3.7 microg/ml at 24 h) and AM (480 +/- 533 microg/ml at 4 h to 99 +/- 50 microg/ml at 24 h). The concentrations of azithromycin in ELF were 1.01 +/- 0.45 microg/ml at 4 h to 1.22 +/- 0.59 microg/ml at 24 h, and those in AM were 42.7 +/- 28.7 microg/ml at 4 h to 41.7 +/- 12.1 microg/ml at 24 h. The concentrations of 14-(R)-hydroxyclarithromycin in the AM ranged from 89.3 +/- 52.8 microg/ml at 4 h to 31.3 +/- 17.7 microg/ml at 24 h. During the period of 24 h after drug administration, azithromycin and clarithromycin achieved mean concentrations in ELF and AM higher than the concomitant concentrations in plasma.Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 07/1997; 41(6):1399-402. · 4.57 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To assess the serum and lower respiratory tract tobramycin concentrations (C(T)) produced by a single dose of tobramycin for inhalation delivered by a nebulizer and a compressor in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) 6 months to 6 years of age. We performed a dose escalation study of serum C(T) measured before and 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 hours after a single dose of inhaled tobramycin, either 180 mg (10 patients) or 300 mg (19 patients). In a separate group of 12 patients, epithelial lining fluid (ELF) C(T) was measured by bronchoalveolar lavage 30 to 45 minutes after a 300-mg dose. A 180-mg dose of inhaled tobramycin produced a mean peak serum C(T) of 0.5 microg/mL (SD 0.4; range, <0.2 to 1.4 microg/mL). A 300-mg dose produced a mean peak serum C(T) of 0.6 microg/mL (SD 0.5; range, <0.2 to 1.2 microg/mL). These peak values are well below the accepted maximum trough concentration with parenteral dosing (2 microg/mL). The target ELF C(T) was 20 microg/mL, 10-fold greater than the minimal inhibitory concentration for most Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from very young patients with CF (2 microg/mL). Mean ELF C(T) was 90 microg/mL (SD 54; range, 16 to 204 microg/mL) and exceeded the target concentration in 11 patients. In patients with CF ages 6 months to 6 years, a single 300-mg dose of inhaled tobramycin appears to produce safe peak serum concentrations and drug concentrations in the bactericidal range in the lower respiratory tract.Journal of Pediatrics 10/2001; 139(4):572-7. · 4.04 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The distribution of a new cephalosporin, cefdinir, in serum, epithelial lining fluid (ELF), bronchial mucosa and alveolar macrophages was studied in 17 adults following a single oral dose of 300 or 600 mg of cefdinir; tissue samples being obtained by diagnostic bronchoscopy approximately 4 h after this dose. Mucosal biopsies were taken, alveolar macrophages harvested by lavage, and ELF volume derived from urea concentrations in bronchial lavage fluid and blood. A microbiological assay for cefdinir was performed in serum, bronchial mucosa, ELF and alveolar macrophages. In patients taking 300 mg of cefdinir, the median concentrations of cefdinir were 2.00 mg/L (range 1.40-8.00) in serum, 0.78 mg/L (range 0-1.33) in bronchial mucosa, and 0.29 mg/L (range 0-4.73) in ELF. In patients taking 600 mg, the median concentrations were 4.20 mg/L (range 3.05-6.40) in serum, 1.14 mg/L (range 0-1.92) in bronchial mucosa, and 0.49 mg/L (range 0-0.59) in ELF. Cefdinir did not penetrate macrophages.Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 03/1996; 37(2):331-9. · 5.34 Impact Factor