Article

The cephalostatins. 21. Synthesis of bis-steroidal pyrazine rhamnosides (1).

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Arizona State University, PO Box 871604, Tempe, Arizona 85287-1604, United States.
Journal of Natural Products (Impact Factor: 3.29). 09/2011; 74(9):1922-30. DOI: 10.1021/np200411p
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The synthesis of bis-steroidal pyrazines derived from 3-oxo-11,21-dihydroxypregna-4,17(20)-diene (4) and glycosylation of a D-ring side chain with α-L-rhamnose have been summarized. Rearrangement of steroidal pyrazine 10 to 14 was found to occur with boron triflouride etherate. Glycosylation of pyrazine 10 using 2,3,4-tri-O-acetyl-α-L-rhamnose iodide led to 1,2-orthoester-α-L-rhamnose pyrazine 17b. By use of a persilylated α-L-rhamnose iodide as donor, formation of the orthoester was avoided. Bis-steroidal pyrazine 10 and rhamnosides 17b and 21c were found to significantly inhibit cancer cell growth in a murine and human cancer cell line panel. Pyrazine 9 inhibited growth of the nosocomial pathogen Enterococcus faecalis.

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    ABSTRACT: Cephalostatin 1 (1), a remarkably strong cancer cell growth inhibitory trisdecacyclic, bis-steroidal pyrazine isolated from the marine tube worm Cephalodiscus gilchristi, continues to be an important target for practical total syntheses and a model for the discovery of less complex structural modifications with promising antineoplastic activity. In the present study, the cephalostatin E and F rings were greatly simplified by replacement at C-17 with an α-pyrone (in 12), typical of the steroidal bufodienolides, and by a dihydro-γ-pyrone (in 16). The synthesis of pyrazine 12 from 5α-dihydrotestosterone (nine steps, 8% overall yield) provided the first route to a bis-bufadienolide pyrazine. Dihydro-γ-pyrone 16 was synthesized in eight steps from ketone 13. While only insignificant cancer cell growth inhibitory activity was found for pyrones 12 and 16, the results provided further support for the necessity of more closely approximating the natural D-F ring system of cephalostatin 1 in order to obtain potent antineoplastic activity.
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