The prevalence and comorbidity of social anxiety disorder among United States Latinos: a retrospective analysis of data from 2 national surveys.
ABSTRACT Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is increasingly being recognized as a prevalent, unremitting, and highly comorbid disorder, yet studies focusing on this disorder among US Latinos and immigrant populations are not available. This article evaluates ethnic differences in the prevalence and comorbidity of SAD as well as the clinical and demographic characteristics associated with SAD. Cultural and contextual factors associated with risk of SAD are also examined within the Latino population more specifically.
Data are analyzed from the National Latino and Asian American Study and the National Comorbidity Survey-Replication. Both studies utilized the World Health Organization-Composite International Diagnostic Interview, which estimates the prevalence of lifetime and 12-month psychiatric disorders according to DSM-IV criteria.
Latinos reported a lower lifetime and 12-month SAD prevalence and a later age at onset than US-born non-Latino whites. On the other hand, Latinos diagnosed with 12-month SAD reported higher impairment across home, work, and relationship domains than their non-Latino white counterparts. Relative to non-Latino whites, Latinos who entered the United States after the age of 21 years were less likely to have lifetime SAD comorbidity with drug abuse and dependence and more likely to report lifetime SAD comorbidity with agoraphobia.
The pattern of risk and associated characteristics of SAD varies for Latinos as compared to non-Latino whites. This is reflected by differences between these 2 groups across SAD prevalence, onset, impairment, and comorbidity. The particularly high comorbidity found with agoraphobia among Latinos who arrive in the United States as adults suggests that cultural factors and timing of immigration play a role in the manifestation and course of anxiety disorders. Interventions designed to decrease the levels of impairment associated with SAD are needed as well as efforts to target Latinos suffering from this disorder, specifically.
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ABSTRACT: Based on clinical observations, social anxiety disorder (SAD) is usually described as a chronic disorder. Its natural course in the community is less clear. The present review summarises prospective and retrospective spontaneous remission rates of SAD in the community and its predictors that were published after 1987. Remission rates were specified as partial, defined as still having social fears, but not fulfilling the diagnostic criteria, and full, defined as having no social fears anymore. In prospective studies, remission rates of SAD varied between 36% and 93% and in retrospective studies between 3% and 80%. The estimated average remission rate in prospective studies was 50% for full remission and 79% when including partial remission. In retrospective studies, the average remission rate was 26% during the last year and 56% over the lifetime. Diverse predictors of remission of SAD have been found that can be clustered into less severe anxiety, less additional psychopathology, less stress, employment, and mental health. The enormous variation in remission rates indicates that SAD might have different course types (short, fluctuating, and chronic) and is not necessarily a chronic disorder. Prevention and treatment should be focused on enhancing positive and reducing negative factors.Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 02/2014; · 4.86 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Despite its high prevalence and associated levels of impairment, the latent structure of social anxiety disorder (SAD) is not well understood, with published studies reporting inconsistent results. Furthermore, it is unknown whether the latent structure of social fears in individuals with and without SAD is the same. Method Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis followed by multiple indicators multiple causes (MIMIC) analysis were conducted on 13 commonly feared social situations assessed in a nationally representative sample including individuals with SAD and those with social fears but who did not meet DSM-IV criteria for SAD. RESULTS: An EFA conducted in the full sample, including individuals with no social fears (88% of the sample), yielded only one factor. When the sample was restricted to those with at least one social fear, the EFA yielded three factors, in both the subsample with at least one social fear but no SAD and the subsample with SAD. The three factors represented feared situations related to public performance, close scrutiny and social interaction. The MIMIC analyses further indicated that the three-factor structure was able to explain differences in prevalence of social fears across a broad range of sociodemographic covariates. CONCLUSIONS: Among individuals with at least one social fear and those with DSM-IV SAD the latent structure of social fears appears to be best described by three factors, although this may partially depend on how the sample is specified. These results may help reconcile the findings of different numbers of factors identified in previous studies.Psychological Medicine 03/2013; · 5.59 Impact Factor