The Prevalence and Comorbidity of Social Anxiety Disorder Among United States Latinos: A Retrospective Analysis of Data From 2 National Surveys
ABSTRACT Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is increasingly being recognized as a prevalent, unremitting, and highly comorbid disorder, yet studies focusing on this disorder among US Latinos and immigrant populations are not available. This article evaluates ethnic differences in the prevalence and comorbidity of SAD as well as the clinical and demographic characteristics associated with SAD. Cultural and contextual factors associated with risk of SAD are also examined within the Latino population more specifically.
Data are analyzed from the National Latino and Asian American Study and the National Comorbidity Survey-Replication. Both studies utilized the World Health Organization-Composite International Diagnostic Interview, which estimates the prevalence of lifetime and 12-month psychiatric disorders according to DSM-IV criteria.
Latinos reported a lower lifetime and 12-month SAD prevalence and a later age at onset than US-born non-Latino whites. On the other hand, Latinos diagnosed with 12-month SAD reported higher impairment across home, work, and relationship domains than their non-Latino white counterparts. Relative to non-Latino whites, Latinos who entered the United States after the age of 21 years were less likely to have lifetime SAD comorbidity with drug abuse and dependence and more likely to report lifetime SAD comorbidity with agoraphobia.
The pattern of risk and associated characteristics of SAD varies for Latinos as compared to non-Latino whites. This is reflected by differences between these 2 groups across SAD prevalence, onset, impairment, and comorbidity. The particularly high comorbidity found with agoraphobia among Latinos who arrive in the United States as adults suggests that cultural factors and timing of immigration play a role in the manifestation and course of anxiety disorders. Interventions designed to decrease the levels of impairment associated with SAD are needed as well as efforts to target Latinos suffering from this disorder, specifically.
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ABSTRACT: Based on clinical observations, social anxiety disorder (SAD) is usually described as a chronic disorder. Its natural course in the community is less clear. The present review summarises prospective and retrospective spontaneous remission rates of SAD in the community and its predictors that were published after 1987. Remission rates were specified as partial, defined as still having social fears, but not fulfilling the diagnostic criteria, and full, defined as having no social fears anymore. In prospective studies, remission rates of SAD varied between 36% and 93% and in retrospective studies between 3% and 80%. The estimated average remission rate in prospective studies was 50% for full remission and 79% when including partial remission. In retrospective studies, the average remission rate was 26% during the last year and 56% over the lifetime. Diverse predictors of remission of SAD have been found that can be clustered into less severe anxiety, less additional psychopathology, less stress, employment, and mental health. The enormous variation in remission rates indicates that SAD might have different course types (short, fluctuating, and chronic) and is not necessarily a chronic disorder. Prevention and treatment should be focused on enhancing positive and reducing negative factors.Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 02/2014; 130(2). DOI:10.1111/acps.12249 · 5.55 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Home to about 15 million people, the US-Mexico border area has suffered stresses from increased border security efforts and a costly drug war in Mexico. Whether immigration patterns add to increasing levels of anxiety for the Mexican population and the Mexican-origin individuals living in the US-Mexico border and near the border is unknown. We used the US-Mexico Study on Alcohol and Related Conditions (UMSARC), a cross-sectional survey (2011-2013) of individuals living in border and non-border cities of the US (n=2,336) and Mexico (n=2,460). In Mexico respondents were asked if they ever migrated to the US or have a family member living in the US (328) or not (2,124), while in the US respondents were asked if they were born in Mexico (697), born in the US with no US-born parents (second generation, 702) or born in the US with at least one US-born parent (third generation, 932). The prevalence and risk factors for symptoms of anxiety using the Beck Anxiety Inventory (>=10) were obtained. Mexicans with no migrant experience had a prevalence of anxiety and adjusted prevalence ratio (PR) within the last month of 6.7% (PR=reference), followed by Mexicans with migration experience of 13.1% (PR=1.8), Mexican-born respondents living in the US of 17.3% (PR=2.6), US born Mexican-Americans of 2nd generation of 18.6% (PR=3.3) and finally US born 3rd+ generation of 25.9% (PR=3.8). Results help to identify regions and migration patterns at high risk for anxiety and may help to unravel causal mechanisms that underlie this risk.Journal of Psychiatric Research 12/2014; 61. DOI:10.1016/j.jpsychires.2014.12.004 · 4.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objective: To assess the prevalence of anxiety disorders and associated factors in young adults. Methods: Cross-sectional population-based study of individuals between the ages of 18 and 24 years randomly selected from 89 census-based sectors to ensure an adequate sample size. Household selection within the sectors was performed according to a systematic sampling process. Anxiety disorders were assessed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). The final sample comprised 1,560 young adults. Results: Of the participants who were diagnosed with anxiety disorders, 12.3% had agoraphobia, 9.7% had generalised anxiety disorder, 4.0% had social phobia, 3.3% had obsessive-compulsive disorder, 2.5% had panic disorder, and 2.1% had post-traumatic stress disorder; only 23.8% had received any previous treatment. Anxiety disorders were associated with sex, socioeconomic status, psychiatric problems in parents, alcohol abuse, and tobacco use. Conclusions: The identification of factors associated with anxiety disorders in young people enables us to develop intervention strategies. Anxiety disorders are not only highly prevalent but are also associated with significant functional impairment, significant reductions in quality of life, lower productivity, and higher rates of comorbidities.Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria 10/2013; 35(4):347-352. DOI:10.1590/1516-4446-2013-1155 · 1.64 Impact Factor