Early prelingual auditory development and speech perception at 1-year follow-up in Mandarin-speaking children after cochlear implantation.
ABSTRACT The primary purpose of the current study was to evaluate early prelingual auditory development (EPLAD) and early speech perception longitudinally over the first year after cochlear implantation in Mandarin-speaking pediatric cochlear implant (CI) recipients. Outcome measures were designed to allow comparisons of outcomes with those of English-speaking pediatric CI recipients reported in previous research.
A hierarchical outcome assessment battery designed to measure EPLAD and early speech perception was used to evaluate 39 pediatric CI recipients implanted between the ages of 1 and 6 years at baseline and 3, 6, and 12 months after implantation. The battery consists of the Mandarin Infant-Toddler Meaningful Auditory Integration Scale (ITMAIS), the Mandarin Early Speech Perception (MESP) test, and the Mandarin Pediatric Speech Intelligibility (MPSI) test. The effects of age at implantation, duration of pre-implant hearing aid use, and Mandarin dialect exposure on performance were evaluated. EPLAD results were compared with the normal developmental trajectory and with results for English-speaking pediatric CI recipients. MESP and MPSI measures of early speech perception were compared with results for English-speaking recipients obtained with comparable measures.
EPLAD, as measured with the ITMAIS/MAIS, was comparable in Mandarin- and English-speaking pediatric CI recipients. Both groups exceeded the normal developmental trajectory when hearing age in CI recipients and chronological age in normal were equated. Evidence of significant EPLAD during pre-implant hearing aid use was observed; although at a more gradual rate than after implantation. Early development of speech perception, as measures with the MESP and MPSI tests, was also comparable for Mandarin- and English-speaking CI recipients throughout the first 12 months after implantation. Both Mandarin dialect exposure and the duration of pre-implant hearing aid use significantly affected measures of early speech perception during this time period.
EPLAD and early speech perception exhibited similar patterns of improvement during the first 12 months after early cochlear implantation. The duration of pre-implant hearing aid use had a significant positive effect on both categories of outcome measures. Consistent post-implant EPLAD trajectories and early speech perception results provide objective evidence that can guide best practices in early intervention protocols.
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ABSTRACT: Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate early spoken language development in young Mandarin-speaking children during the first 24 months after cochlear implantation, as measured by receptive and expressive vocabulary growth rates. Growth rates were compared with those of normally hearing children and with growth rates for English-speaking children with cochlear implants. Method Receptive and expressive vocabularies were measured with the Simplified Short Form (SSF) version of the Mandarin Communicative Development Inventory (MCDI) in a sample of 112 pediatric implant recipients at baseline, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after implantation. Implant ages ranged from 1-5 years. Scores were expressed in terms of normal equivalent ages, allowing normalized vocabulary growth rates to be determined. Scores for English-speaking children were re-expressed in these terms, allowing direct comparisons of Mandarin and English early spoken language development. Results Vocabulary growth rates during the first 12 months after implantation were similar to those for normally hearing children less than 16 months of age. Comparisons with growth rates for normally hearing children 16- 30 months of age showed that the youngest implant age group (1-2 years) had an average growth rate of 0.68 that of normally hearing children; while the middle implant age group (2-3 years) had an average growth rate of 0.65; and the oldest implant age group (> 3 years) had an average growth rate of 0.56, significantly less than the other two rates. Growth rates for English-speaking children with cochlear implants were 0.68 in the youngest group, 0.54 in the middle group, and 0.57 in the oldest group. Growth rates in the middle implant age groups for the two languages differed significantly. Conclusions The SSF version of the MCDI is suitable for assessment of Mandarin language development during the first 24 months after cochlear implantation. Effects of implant age and duration of implantation can be compared directly across languages using normalized vocabulary growth rates. These comparisons for Mandarin and English reveal comparable results, despite the diversity of these languages, underscoring the universal role of plasticity in the developing auditory system.International journal of pediatric otorhinolaryngology 07/2014; · 0.85 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to examine the outcomes of cochlear implantation in young children in terms of (1) perception of lexical tones in quiet, (2) perception of sentences in quiet and in noise, (3) the effects of five demographic variables (i.e., preoperative hearing level, age at implantation, duration of cochlear implants use, maternal educational level, and whether a child underwent a hearing aid trial before implantation) on lexical tone perception and sentence perception, and (4) the relationship between lexical tone perception and sentence perception.International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology 08/2014; · 1.32 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Speech acquisition after cochlear implant is a long process. Various studies have followed the auditory milestones in the early period after implantation. The aim of the present study was to track the development of hearing skills in the early period after cochlear implantation and evaluate which factors influence the process. 195 records of children implanted in the Hadassah Medical Center were examined retrospectively. Data on etiology, age at implantation and type of implant were collected. In addition, information on the rate of progress was measured: the first time that there was detection and identification of Ling sounds, the first time it was possible to obtain SDT (speech detection threshold), SRT (speech reception threshold) and an audiogram, and the first accurate repetition of VCV (vowel consonant vowel) sounds. Results show a consistent pattern of auditory milestone acquisition similar to that of normal development, from milestones that do not require decoding beginning with SDT, detection of Ling sounds followed by an audiogram which requires cooperation, to tasks that involve decoding starting with SRT and repetition of Ling sounds and finally VCV repetition. The children implanted before 24 months of age achieved the auditory milestones later than children implanted between 2 and 6 years, apparently since these tasks involve cognitive abilities which are not yet developed in the youngest children. Previous hearing experience improved the rate of acquisition of the auditory milestones and progress was faster in the second implanted ear compared to the first implanted ear. More research is needed to address the relationship between acquisition of early auditory milestones and performance with the cochlear implant later on in life.International journal of pediatric otorhinolaryngology 09/2013; · 0.85 Impact Factor