Reasons related to non-vaccination and under-vaccination of children in low and middle income countries: Findings from a systematic review of the published literature, 1999-2009
ABSTRACT Despite increases in routine vaccination coverage during the past three decades, the percent of children completing the recommended vaccination schedule remains below expected targets in many low and middle income countries. In 2008, the World Health Organization Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on Immunization requested more information on the reasons that children were under-vaccinated (receiving at least one but not all recommended vaccinations) or not vaccinated in order to develop effective strategies and interventions to reach these children.
A systematic review of the peer-reviewed literature published from 1999 to 2009 was conducted to aggregate information on reasons and factors related to the under-vaccination and non-vaccination of children. A standardized form was used to abstract information from relevant articles identified from eight different medical, behavioural and social science literature databases.
Among 202 relevant articles, we abstracted 838 reasons associated with under-vaccination; 379 (45%) were related to immunization systems, 220 (26%) to family characteristics, 181 (22%) to parental attitudes and knowledge, and 58 (7%) to limitations in immunization-related communication and information. Of the 19 reasons abstracted from 11 identified articles describing the non-vaccinated child, 6 (32%) were related to immunization systems, 8 (42%) to parental attitudes and knowledge, 4 (21%) to family characteristics, and 1 (5%) to communication and information.
Multiple reasons for under-vaccination and non-vaccination were identified, indicating that a multi-faceted approach is needed to reach under-vaccinated and unvaccinated children. Immunization system issues can be addressed through improving outreach services, vaccine supply, and health worker training; however, under-vaccination and non-vaccination linked to parental attitudes and knowledge are more difficult to address and likely require local interventions.
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ABSTRACT: The Pan American Health Organization recently developed a practical guide for evaluating missed opportunities for vaccination among children aged <5 years. A missed opportunity occurs when an individual eligible for vaccination has contact with a health facility and does not receive a needed vaccine, despite having no contraindications. In this article, we discuss the strengths and limitations of this new methodology and present lessons learned from recent studies on undervaccination in Latin America. Our findings should be useful to countries embarking on assessing the magnitude and the causes of missed opportunities for vaccination children experience at health facilities.BMC International Health and Human Rights 12/2015; 15(1). DOI:10.1186/s12914-015-0043-1 · 1.44 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The level of vaccination coverage in a given community depends on both service factors and the degree to which the public understands and trusts the immunization process. This article describes an approach that aims to raise awareness and boost demand. Developed in India, the "My Village Is My Home" (MVMH) tool, known as Uma Imunizasaun (UI) in Timor-Leste, is a poster-sized material used by volunteers and health workers to record the births and vaccination dates of every infant in a community. Introduction of the tool in 5 districts of India (April 2012 to March 2013) and in 7 initial villages in Timor-Leste (beginning in January 2012) allowed community leaders, volunteers, and health workers to monitor the vaccination status of every young child and guided reminder and motivational visits. In 3 districts of India, we analyzed data on vaccination coverage and timeliness before and during use of the tool; in 2 other districts, analysis was based only on data for new births during use of the tool. In Timor-Leste, we compared UI data from the 3 villages with the most complete data with data for the same villages from the vaccination registers from the previous year. In both countries, we also obtained qualitative data about perceptions of the tool through interviews with health workers and community members. Assessments in both countries found evidence suggesting improved vaccination timeliness and coverage. In India, pilot communities had 80% or higher coverage of identified and eligible children for all vaccines. In comparison, overall coverage in the respective districts during the same time period was much lower, at 49% to 69%. In Timor-Leste, both the number of infants identified and immunized rose substantially with use of the tool compared with the previous year (236 vs. 155, respectively, identified as targets; 185 vs. 147, respectively, received Penta 3). Although data challenges limit firm conclusions, the experiences in both countries suggest that "My Village Is My Home" is a promising tool that has the potential to broaden program coverage by marshalling both community residents and health workers to track individual children's vaccinations. Three states in India have adopted the tool, and Timor-Leste had also planned to scale-up the initiative. © Jain et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are properly cited. To view a copy of the license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/. When linking to this article, please use the following permanent link: http://dx.doi.org/10.9745/GHSP-D-14-00180.Global Health: Science and Practice 03/2015; 3(1):117-25. DOI:10.9745/GHSP-D-14-00180
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ABSTRACT: Vaccination against the hepatitis B virus (HBV) in the West African nation of Nigeria is lower than many Sub-Saharan African countries. In Nigeria, HBV is reported to be the most common cause of liver disease. However, the extent of HBV exposure among Nigerians at average risk is unknown. Our aim, therefore, was to accurately estimate the HBV prevalence for the country and the prevalence for specific subgroups. We used electronic databases to select systematic reviews and meta-analyses from 2000 to 2013. Forty-six studies were included (n = 34,376 persons). We used a random effects meta-analysis of cross-sectional and longitudinal studies to generate our estimates. The pooled prevalence of HBV in Nigeria was 13.6% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 11.5, 15.7%). The pooled prevalence (% [95% CI]) among subgroups was: 14.0% (11.7, 16.3) for blood donors; 14.1% (9.6, 18.6) for pregnant women attending antenatal clinics; 11.5% (6.0, 17.0) for children; 14.0% (11.6, 16.5) among adults; and 16.0% (11.1, 20.9) for studies evaluating adults and children. HBV prevalence in Nigeria varied by screening method [% (95% CI)]: 12.3% (10.1, 14.4) by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; 17.5% (12.4, 22.7) by immunochromatography; and 13.6% (11.5, 15.7) by HBV DNA polymerase chain reaction. HBV infection is hyperendemic in Nigeria and may be the highest in Sub-Sahara Africa. Our results suggest that large numbers of pregnant women and children were exposed to HBV from 2000 to 2013. Increased efforts to prevent new HBV infections are urgently needed in Nigeria.Nigerian journal of clinical practice 03/2015; 18(2):163-72. DOI:10.4103/1119-3077.151035 · 0.41 Impact Factor