Oxidative properties of a nonheme Ni(II)(O-2) complex: Reactivity patterns for C-H activation, aromatic hydroxylation and heteroatom oxidation
ABSTRACT Density functional theory calculations on the reactivity of a Ni(II)-superoxo complex in C-H bond activation, aromatic hydroxylation and heteroatom oxidation reactions have been explored; the Ni(II)-superoxo complex is able to react with substrates with weak C-H bonds and PPh(3).
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ABSTRACT: In this work, we present the first computational study on a biomimetic cysteine dioxygenase model complex, [Fe(II)(LN(3)S)](+), in which LN(3)S is a tetradentate ligand with a bis(imino)pyridyl scaffold and a pendant arylthiolate group. The reaction mechanism of sulfur dioxygenation with O(2) was examined by density functional theory (DFT) methods and compared with results obtained for cysteine dioxygenase. The reaction proceeds via multistate reactivity patterns on competing singlet, triplet, and quintet spin state surfaces. The reaction mechanism is analogous to that found for cysteine dioxygenase enzymes (Kumar, D.; Thiel, W.; de Visser, S. P. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2011, 133, 3869-3882); hence, the computations indicate that this complex can closely mimic the enzymatic process. The catalytic mechanism starts from an iron(III)-superoxo complex and the attack of the terminal oxygen atom of the superoxo group on the sulfur atom of the ligand. Subsequently, the dioxygen bond breaks to form an iron(IV)-oxo complex with a bound sulfenato group. After reorganization, the second oxygen atom is transferred to the substrate to give a sulfinic acid product. An alternative mechanism involving the direct attack of dioxygen on the sulfur, without involving any iron-oxygen intermediates, was also examined. Importantly, a significant energetic preference for dioxygen coordinating to the iron center prior to attack at sulfur was discovered and serves to elucidate the function of the metal ion in the reaction process. The computational results are in good agreement with experimental observations, and the differences and similarities of the biomimetic complex and the enzymatic cysteine dioxygenase center are highlighted.The Journal of Physical Chemistry A 11/2011; 116(1):582-91. DOI:10.1021/jp208230g
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ABSTRACT: The impact of the macrocyclic ligand on the electronic structure of two LNiO(2) biomimetic adducts, [Ni(12-TMC)O(2) ](+) (12-TMC = 1,4,7,10-tetramethyl-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane) and [Ni(14-TMC)O(2) ](+) (14-TMC = 1,4,8,11-tetramethyl-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane), has been inspected by means of difference-dedicated configuration interaction calculations and a valence bond reading of the wavefunction. The system containing the 12-membered macrocyclic ligand has been experimentally described as a side-on nickel(III)-peroxo complex, whereas the 14-membered one has been characterized as an end-on nickel(II)-superoxide. Our results put in evidence the relationship between the steric effect of the macrocyclic ligand, the O(2) coordination mode and the charge transfer extent between the Ni center and the O(2) molecule. The 12-membered macrocyclic ligand favors a side-on coordination, a most efficient overlap between Ni 3d and O(2) π* orbitals and, consequently, a larger charge transfer from LNi fragment to O(2) molecule. The analysis of the ground-state electronic structure shows an enhancement of the peroxide nature of the NiO(2) interaction for [Ni(12-TMC)O(2) ](+) , although a dominant superoxide character is found for both systems. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Journal of Computational Chemistry 01/2012; 33(16). DOI:10.1002/jcc.22965
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ABSTRACT: Many enzymes in nature utilize molecular oxygen on an iron center for the catalysis of substrate hydroxylation. In recent years, great progress has been made in understanding the function and properties of iron(IV)-oxo complexes; however, little is known about the reactivity of iron(II)-superoxo intermediates in substrate activation. It has been proposed recently that iron(II)-superoxo intermediates take part as hydrogen abstraction species in the catalytic cycles of nonheme iron enzymes. To gain insight into oxygen atom transfer reactions by the nonheme iron(II)-superoxo species, we performed a density functional theory study on the aliphatic and aromatic hydroxylation reactions using a biomimetic model complex. The calculations show that nonheme iron(II)-superoxo complexes can be considered as effective oxidants in hydrogen atom abstraction reactions, for which we find a low barrier of 14.7 kcal mol(-1) on the sextet spin state surface. On the other hand, electrophilic reactions, such as aromatic hydroxylation, encounter much higher (>20 kcal mol(-1)) barrier heights and therefore are unlikely to proceed. A thermodynamic analysis puts our barrier heights into a larger context of previous studies using nonheme iron(IV)-oxo oxidants and predicts the activity of enzymatic iron(II)-superoxo intermediates.Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics 02/2012; 14(7):2518-24. DOI:10.1039/c2cp23352e