Sepiapterin enhances angiogenesis and functional recovery in mice after myocardial infarction
ABSTRACT Uncoupling of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) has been implicated in left ventricular (LV) remodeling and dysfunction after myocardial infarction (MI). We hypothesized that inducible NOS (iNOS) plays a crucial role in LV remodeling after MI, depending on its coupling status. MI was created in wild-type, iNOS-knockout (iNOS(-/-)), endothelial NOS-knockout (eNOS(-/-)), and neuronal NOS-knockout (nNOS(-/-)) mice. iNOS and nNOS expressions were increased after MI associated with an increase in nitrotyrosine formation. The area of myocardial fibrosis and LV end-diastolic volume and ejection fraction were more deteriorated in eNOS(-/-) mice compared with other genotypes of mice 4 wk after MI. The expression of GTP cyclohydrolase was reduced, and tetrahydrobiopterin (BH(4)) was depleted in the heart after MI. Oral administration of sepiapterin after MI increased dihydrobiopterin (BH(2)), BH(4), and BH(4)-to-BH(2) ratio in the infarcted but not sham-operated heart. The increase in BH(4)-to-BH(2) ratio was associated with inhibition of nitrotyrosine formation and an increase in nitrite plus nitrate. However, this inhibition of NOS uncoupling was blunted in iNOS(-/-) mice. Sepiapterin increased capillary density and prevented LV remodeling and dysfunction after MI in wild-type, eNOS(-/-), and nNOS(-/-) but not iNOS(-/-) mice. N(ω)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester abrogated sepiapterin-induced increase in nitrite plus nitrate and angiogenesis and blocked the beneficial effects of sepiapterin on LV remodeling and function. These results suggest that sepiapterin enhances angiogenesis and functional recovery after MI by activating the salvage pathway for BH(4) synthesis and increasing bioavailable nitric oxide predominantly derived from iNOS.
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ABSTRACT: Nitric oxide synthase enzyme (NOS) possesses the unique ability to be "uncoupled" to produce superoxide anion (O(2)(-)) instead of nitric oxide (NO). Reduced NO bioavailability as a result of NOS uncoupling has been speculated to play an essential role in cardiovascular pathologies including dilated cardiomyopathy, ischemia reperfusion injury, endothelial dysfunction, atherosclerosis, hypertension and diabetes mellitus. NO serves many important roles in the heart including stimulation of adenylate cyclase (AC) at low levels or guanalyl cyclase (sGC) at higher levels, or by s-nitrosylation of intracellular Ca(2+) regulatory proteins thus altering excitation-contraction coupling. Not surprisingly, NOS uncoupling is an emerging therapeutic target in cardiovascular diseases. Restoring proper NOS activity by increasing intracellular levels of its cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is effective in the management of hypertensive diastolic dysfunction, ischemia-reperfusion injury, myocardial infarction and endothelial dysfunction. New evidence is constantly emerging highlighting the importance of NOS uncoupling in cardiovascular pathologies thus the purpose of this mini-review is to showcase the new advances and promising treatments for NOS uncoupling in CV disease.Vascular Pharmacology 02/2012; 57(5-6):168-72. DOI:10.1016/j.vph.2012.02.004 · 4.62 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Significance: The regulation of myocardial function by constitutive nitric oxide synthases (NOS) is important for the maintenance of myocardial Ca(2+) homeostasis, relaxation and distensibility, and protection from arrhythmia and abnormal stress stimuli. However, sustained insults such as diabetes, hypertension, hemodynamic overload, and atrial fibrillation lead to dysfunctional NOS activity with superoxide produced instead of NO and worse pathophysiology. Recent Advances: Major strides in understanding the role of normal and abnormal constitutive NOS in the heart have revealed molecular targets by which NO modulates myocyte function and morphology, the role and nature of post-translational modifications of NOS, and factors controlling nitroso-redox balance. Localized and differential signaling from NOS1 (neuronal) versus NOS3 (endothelial) isoforms are being identified, as are methods to restore NOS function in heart disease. Critical Issues: Abnormal NOS signaling plays a key role in many cardiac disorders, while targeted modulation may potentially reverse this pathogenic source of oxidative stress. Future Directions: Improvements in the clinical translation of potent modulators of NOS function/dysfunction may ultimately provide a powerful new treatment for many hearts diseases that are fueled by nitroso-redox imbalance. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 00, 000-000.Antioxidants & Redox Signaling 08/2012; 18(9). DOI:10.1089/ars.2012.4824 · 7.67 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Significance: Proangiogenic therapy appeared a promising strategy for the treatment of patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI), as de novo formation of microvessels, has the potential to salvage ischemic myocardium at early stages after MI, and is also essential to prevent the transition to heart failure through the control of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and contractility. Recent Advances: Exciting preclinical studies evaluating proangiogenic therapies for MI have prompted the initiation of numerous clinical trials based on protein or gene transfer delivery of growth factors and administration of stem/progenitor cells, mainly from bone marrow origin. Nonetheless, these clinical trials showed mixed results in patients with acute MI. Critical Issues: Even though methodological caveats, such as way of delivery for angiogenic growth factors (e.g., protein vs. gene transfer) and stem/progenitor cells or isolation/culture procedure for regenerative cells might partially explain the failure of such trials, it appears that delivery of a single growth factor or cell type does not support angiogenesis sufficiently to promote cardiac repair. Future Directions: Optimization of proangiogenic therapies might include stimulation of both angiogenesis and vessel maturation and/or the use of additional sources of stem/progenitor cells, such as cardiac progenitor cells. Experimental unraveling of the mechanisms of angiogenesis, vessel maturation, and endothelial cell/cardiomyocyte cross talk in the ischemic heart, analysis of emerging pathways, as well as a better understanding of how cardiovascular risk factors impact endogenous and therapeutically stimulated angiogenesis, would undoubtedly pave the way for the development of novel and hopefully efficient angiogenesis targeting therapeutics for the treatment of acute MI. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 00, 000-000.Antioxidants & Redox Signaling 08/2012; DOI:10.1089/ars.2012.4849 · 7.67 Impact Factor