Mortality among survivors of the Sept 11, 2001, World Trade Center disaster: results from the World Trade Center Health Registry cohort
ABSTRACT The Sept 11, 2001 (9/11) World Trade Center (WTC) disaster has been associated with several subacute and chronic health effects, but whether excess mortality after 9/11 has occurred is unknown. We tested whether excess mortality has occurred in people exposed to the WTC disaster.
In this observational cohort study, deaths occurring in 2003-09 in WTC Health Registry participants residing in New York City were identified through linkage to New York City vital records and the National Death Index. Eligible participants were rescue and recovery workers and volunteers; lower Manhattan area residents, workers, school staff and students; and commuters and passers-by on 9/11. Study participants were categorised as rescue and recovery workers (including volunteers), or non-rescue and non-recovery participants. Standardised mortality ratios (SMR) were calculated with New York City rates from 2000-09 as the reference. Within the cohort, proportional hazards were used to examine the relation between a three-tiered WTC-related exposure level (high, intermediate, or low) and total mortality.
We identified 156 deaths in 13,337 rescue and recovery workers and 634 deaths in 28,593 non-rescue and non-recovery participants. All-cause SMRs were significantly lower than that expected for rescue and recovery participants (SMR 0·45, 95% CI 0·38-0·53) and non-rescue and non-recovery participants (0·61, 0·56-0·66). No significantly increased SMRs for diseases of the respiratory system or heart, or for haematological malignancies were found. In non-rescue and non-recovery participants, both intermediate and high levels of WTC-related exposure were significantly associated with mortality when compared with low exposure (adjusted hazard ratio 1·22, 95% CI 1·01-1·48, for intermediate exposure and 1·56, 1·15-2·12, for high exposure). High levels of exposure in non-rescue and non-recovery individuals, when compared with low exposed non-rescue and non-recovery individuals, were associated with heart-disease-related mortality (adjusted hazard ratio 2·06, 1·10-3·86). In rescue and recovery participants, level of WTC-related exposure was not significantly associated with all-cause mortality (adjusted hazard ratio 1·25, 95% CI 0·56-2·78, for high exposure and 1·03, 0·52-2·06, for intermediate exposure when compared with low exposure).
This exploratory study of mortality in a well defined cohort of 9/11 survivors provides a baseline for continued surveillance. Additional follow-up is needed to establish whether these associations persist and whether a similar association over time will occur in rescue and recovery participants.
US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, and National Center for Environmental Health); New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene.
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ABSTRACT: The response to 9/11 continues into its 14th year. The World Trade Center Health Program (WTCHP), a long-term monitoring and treatment program now funded by the Zadroga Act of 2010, includes >60,000 World Trade Center (WTC) disaster responders and community members ("survivors"). The aim of this review is to identify several elements that have had a critical impact on the evolution of the WTC response and, directly or indirectly, the health of the WTC-exposed population. It further explores post-disaster monitoring efforts, recent scientific findings from the WTCHP, and some implications of this experience for ongoing and future environmental disaster response. Transparency and responsiveness, site safety and worker training, assessment of acute and chronic exposure, and development of clinical expertise are interconnected elements determining efficacy of disaster response. Even in a relatively well-resourced environment, challenges regarding allocation of appropriate attention to vulnerable populations and integration of treatment response to significant medical and mental health comorbidities remain areas of ongoing programmatic development. Copyright © 2014 Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai. All rights reserved.07/2014; 80(4):320-331. DOI:10.1016/j.aogh.2014.08.215
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ABSTRACT: Prospective cohorts have played a major role in understanding the contribution of diet, physical activity, medical conditions, and genes to the development of many diseases, but have not been widely used for occupational exposures. Studies in agriculture are an exception. We draw upon our experience using this design to study agricultural workers to identify conditions that might foster use of prospective cohorts to study other occupational settings. Prospective cohort studies are perceived by many as the strongest epidemiologic design. It allows updating of information on exposure and other factors, collection of biologic samples before disease diagnosis for biomarker studies, assessment of effect modification by genes, lifestyle, and other occupational exposures, and evaluation of a wide range of health outcomes. Increased use of prospective cohorts would be beneficial in identifying hazardous exposures in the workplace. Occupational epidemiologists should seek opportunities to initiate prospective cohorts to investigate high priority, occupational exposures. Am. J. Ind. Med. 58:113–122, 2015.American Journal of Industrial Medicine 02/2015; 58(2):113-122. DOI:10.1002/ajim.22403 · 1.59 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background: This study tests whether depression, psychosocial adversity, and limited social assets offer protection or suggest vulnerability to the process of radicalisation. Methods: A population sample of 608 men and women of Pakistani or Bangladeshi origin, of Muslim heritage, and aged 1845 were recruited by quota sampling. Radicalisation was measured by 16 questions asking about sympathies for violent protest and terrorism. Cluster analysis of the 16 items generated three groups: most sympathetic (or most vulnerable), most condemning (most resistant), and a large intermediary group that acted as a reference group. Associations were calculated with depression (PHQ9), anxiety (GAD7), poor health, and psychosocial adversity (adverse life events, perceived discrimination, unemployment). We also investigated protective factors such as the number social contacts, social capital (trust, satisfaction, feeling safe), political engagement and religiosity. Results: Those showing the most sympathy for violent protest and terrorism were more likely to report depression (PHQ9 score of 5 or more; RR = 5.43, 1.35 to 21.84) and to report religion to be important (less often said religion was fairly rather than very important; RR = 0.08, 0.01 to 0.48). Resistance to radicalisation measured by condemnation of violent protest and terrorism was associated with larger number of social contacts (per contact: RR = 1.52, 1.26 to 1.83), less social capital (RR = 0.63, 0.50 to 0.80), unavailability for work due to housekeeping or disability (RR = 8.81, 1.06 to 37.46), and not being born in the UK (RR = 0.22, 0.08 to 0.65). Conclusions: Vulnerability to radicalisation is characterised by depression but resistance to radicalisation shows a different profile of health and psychosocial variables. The paradoxical role of social capital warrants further investigation.PLoS ONE 09/2014; 9(9):e105918. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0105918 · 3.53 Impact Factor