Characteristic tubulointerstitial nephritis in IgG4-related disease
ABSTRACT Nephropathy associated with IgG4-related disease is characterized by tubulointerstitial nephritis. To better identify its pathology, the present study analyzed clinicopathologic features of IgG4-related tubulointerstitial nephritis cases from across Japan. Sixteen cases were identified as IgG4-related nephropathy using the criterion of high serum IgG4 levels (>135 mg/dL) with abnormal kidney computed tomography or elevated serum creatinine levels. Male predominance (75%) and advanced age (average, 62.0 years) were noted. Eight cases displayed no autoimmune pancreatitis. Renal computed tomography abnormalities were found in 12 of 13 cases examined. Renal dysfunction was found in 15 of 16 cases at biopsy. Distinctive features of tubulointerstitial lesions included (1) well-demarcated borders between involved and uninvolved areas; (2) involvement of the cortex and medulla, often extending beyond the renal capsule and with occasional extension to retroperitoneal fibrosis; (3) interstitial inflammatory cells comprising predominantly plasma cells and lymphocytes, with a high prevalence of IgG4-positive cells often admixed with fibrosis; (4) peculiar features of interstitial fibrosis resembling a "bird's-eye" pattern comprising fibrosis among inter-plasma cell spaces; and (5) deposits visible by light and immunofluorescent microscopy in the tubular basement membrane, Bowman capsule, and interstitium that are restricted to the involved portion, sparing normal parts. Ultrastructural analysis revealed the presence of myofibroblasts with intracellular/pericellular collagen accompanied by plasma cell accumulation from an early stage. Histology could not discriminate between IgG4-related tubulointerstitial nephritis with and without autoimmune pancreatitis. In conclusion, the distinctive histologic features of IgG4-related tubulointerstitial nephritis can facilitate the differential diagnosis of tubulointerstitial nephritis, even without autoimmune pancreatitis or an abnormal computed tomography suggesting a renal tumor.
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ABSTRACT: Although tubulointerstitial nephritis with IgG4+ plasma cell (PC) infiltration is a hallmark of IgG4-related kidney disease (IgG4-RKD), only a few studies are available about the minimum number of IgG4+ PC needed for diagnosis along with IgG4+/IgG+ PC ratio in the kidney. In addition, the significance of the deposition of IgG or complement as a reflection of humoral immunity involvement is still uncertain. In this study, we analyzed 20 Japanese patients with IgG4-RKD to evaluate the number of IgG4+ PCs along with IgG4+/IgG+ PC ratio and involvement of humoral immunity. The average number of IgG4+ PCs was 43.8/hpf and the average IgG4+/IgG+ or IgG4+/CD138+ ratio was 53%. IgG and C3 granular deposits on the tubular basement membrane (TBM) were detected by immunofluorescence microscopy in 13% and 47% of patients, respectively. Nine patients had a variety of glomerular lesions, and 7 of them had immunoglobulin or complement deposition in the glomerulus. In conclusion, we confirmed that infiltrating IgG4+ PCs > 10/hpf and/or IgG4/IgG (CD138)+ PCs > 40% was appropriate as an item of the diagnostic criteria for IgG4-RKD. A relatively high frequency of diverse glomerular lesions with immunoglobulin or complement deposits and deposits in TBM may be evidence of immune complex involvement in IgG4-related disease.International Journal of Rheumatology 01/2012; 2012:609795. DOI:10.1155/2012/609795
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ABSTRACT: We report a case of a 71-year-old Filipino female who was admitted to the hospital for abdominal pain, vomiting and diarrhea of 8 days duration. The patient was found to have marked acute kidney injury (AKI), which required hemodialysis in the next 3 days. Extensive workup revealed hematuria, subnephrotic range proteinuria, elevated anti-nuclear antibody (ANA) and elevated total immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels, with normal IgG4 and anti-dsDNA levels. On kidney biopsy, mild membranous glomerulonephritis was found, along with autoimmune tubulointerstitial nephritis (TIN) with a "full-house" pattern of immune deposits. These findings were suggestive of lupus interstitial nephritis. However, IgG4+ plasma cells were detected in the interstitium by immunostaining, favoring a diagnosis of IgG4-related kidney disease (IgG4-RKD). Our case highlights the difficulty in differentiating lupus nephritis (LN) from IgG4-RKD in some patients, raising the suspicion that these two entities can co-exist.Journal of Clinical Medicine Research 07/2015; 7(7):575-581. DOI:10.14740/jocmr2189w
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ABSTRACT: Background IgG4-related kidney disease is a comprehensive term for renal lesions associated with IgG4-related disease, which mainly manifests as plasma cell-rich tubulointerstitial nephritis with increased IgG4+ plasma cells and fibrosis. IgG4-related kidney disease in the renal pelvis is rare. Case presentation We describe a 53-year-old Asian woman who was referred to our hospital with a space-occupying renal lesion discovered by medical examination. A physical examination and laboratory evaluation revealed no significant abnormalities. Computed tomography scans showed a soft-tissue mass with an irregular border and mild homogeneous enhancement in the right renal pelvis and calyces. A positron emission tomography/computed tomography scan revealed soft-tissue density shadows with increased radionuclide uptake. To investigate a suspected pelvic carcinoma, a right ureteronephrectomy was performed. A pathologic examination of the renal sections showed a dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate rich in IgG4+ plasma cells, with fibrosis beneath the urothelial epithelium of the renal pelvis. Postoperatively, the serum IgG4 level was significantly elevated. The patient was diagnosed with IgG4-related kidney disease. Conclusion We present a case of IgG4-related kidney disease mimicking urothelial carcinoma in the renal pelvis. When a buried and solitary hypovascular tumor is detected in the kidney, we must consider IgG4-related kidney disease as a differential diagnosis. Accordingly, elevated serum IgG4, radiologic findings, and pathologic examination may improve the diagnosis.BMC Urology 05/2015; 15(1). DOI:10.1186/s12894-015-0041-6 · 1.94 Impact Factor