Effect of miniscrew placement torque on resistance to miniscrew movement under load
ABSTRACT The primary stability of orthodontic anchorage miniscrews is believed to result from mechanical interlock, with success based upon a number of variables, including screw diameter, angle of placement, monocortical vs bicortical placement, placement through attached or unattached soft tissue, presence or absence of a pilot hole, periscrew inflammation, and maximum placement torque. The purpose of this ex-vivo study was to further explore the relationship between maximum placement torque during miniscrew placement and miniscrew resistance to movement under load.
Ninety-six titanium screws were placed into 24 hemi-maxillae and 24 hemi-mandibles from cadavers between the first and second premolars by using a digital torque screwdriver. All screws were subjected to a force parallel to the occlusal plane, pulling mesially until the miniscrews were displaced by 0.6 mm. The Spearman rank correlation test was used to evaluate whether there was an increasing or a decreasing relationship between maximum placement torque of the screws, miniscrew resistance to movement, and bone thickness. A paired-sample t test and the nonparametric Wilcoxon signed rank test were used to compare maximum placement torque, bone thickness, and miniscrew resistance to movement between coronally positioned and apically positioned screws in the maxilla and the mandible, and between screws placed in the maxilla vs screws placed in the mandible. Additionally, 1-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with the post-hoc Tukey-Kramer test was used to determine whether there was a significant difference in miniscrew resistance to movement for screws placed with maximum torque of <5 Ncm, 5 to 10 Ncm, and >10 Ncm.
The mean difference in miniscrew resistance to movement between maximum placement torque groupings, <5 Ncm, 5 to 10 Ncm, and >10 Ncm, increased throughout the deflection range of 0.0 to 0.6 mm. As deflection increased to 0.12 to 0.33 mm, the mean resistance to movement for miniscrews with maximum placement torque of 5 to 10 Ncm was statistically greater than for screws with maximum placement torque <5 Ncm (P <0.05). As deflection increased to 0.34 to 0.60 mm, the mean resistance to movement for miniscrews with maximum placement torque of 5 to 10 Ncm and >10 Ncm was significantly greater than for screws with maximum placement torque <5 Ncm (P <0.05). At no deflection was there a significant difference in resistance to movement between the 2 miniscrew groups with higher placement torque values of 5 to 10 Ncm and >10 Ncm.
Ex vivo, the mean resistance to movement of miniscrews with higher maximum placement torque was greater than the resistance to movement of those with lower maximum placement torque.
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ABSTRACT: Objectives: Orthodontic mini-implants (OMIs) are increasingly used in orthodontics but can fail for various reasons. This study investigates the effects of OMI design characteristics on the mechanical properties in artificial bone. Material and Methods: Twelve self-drilling OMIs (2 small, 6 medium, 4 large) from 8 manufacturers were tested for their primary stability in simulated medium-high cancellous bone and the risk to fracture in high-density methacrylate blocks. For the assessments of the maximum insertion torque (IT) and torsional fracture (TF) 5 of each OMI were used and for the pull-out strength (POS) 10. The OMIs were inserted with a torque screwdriver (12 sec/360°) until the bottom at 8 mm depth was reached. OMI designs were analyzed with a scan electron microscope (SEM). Results: SEM images revealed a great variation in product refinement. In the whole sample, a cylindrical OMI shape was associated with higher POS (p<0.001) but lower IT (p=0.002) values. The outer and inner OMI diameters were design characteristics well correlated with POS, IT and TF values (ranging from 0.601 to 0.961). Greater thread depth was related to greater POS values (r= 0.628), although OMIs with similar POS values may have different IT values. Thread depth and pitch had some impact on POS. TF depended mainly on the OMI inner (r= 0.961) and outer diameters (r=0.892). A thread depth to outer diameter ratio close to 40% increased TF risk. Conclusions: Although at the same insertion depth the OMI outer and inner diameters are the most important factors for primary stability, other OMI design characteristics (cylindrical vs. conical, thread design) may significantly affect primary stability and torsional fracture. This needs to be considered when selecting the appropriate OMI for the desired orthodontic procedures. Key words:Orthodontic mini-implants, primary stability, insertion torque, pullout strength, torsional fracture.Medicina oral, patologia oral y cirugia bucal 05/2013; 18(5). DOI:10.4317/medoral.18674 · 1.10 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The aim of the present in vitro study was to investigate the required time period of the Er:YAG laser that is used for drilling through cortical bone when pilot hole drilling is needed before miniscrew insertion. Even though Er:YAG laser is used in various in vivo and in vitro studies, there is no accepted procedure of laser for depth control during drilling through cortical bone. The study sample consisted of 120 cortical bone segments having 1.5 and 2.0 mm of cortical bone thickness. An Er:YAG laser, with a spot size of 1.3 mm and an air-water spray of 40-50 ml/min, was used. The laser was held 2 mm away from and perpendicular to the bone surface with different laser settings. Twelve specimens were prepared for each subgroup. As the cortical bone thickness increased, the time needed to drill through the bone increased. Frequency increase directly caused a decrease in irradiation duration. When three different frequency, three different energy, and four different power values were tested for both the 1.5- and 2-mm cortical bone thicknesses, the shortest duration needed to drill through cortical bone was seen in the 3.6-W (300 mJ-12 Hz) setting. When pilot holes are drilled prior to miniscrew placement in 1.5 to 2 mm of cortical bone using Er:YAG laser, the most appropriate value is found with the 3.6-W (300 mJ-12 Hz) setting.Lasers in Medical Science 06/2013; 30(2). DOI:10.1007/s10103-013-1374-6 · 2.42 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Objective: To compare the primary stability of miniscrews inserted into bone blocks of different bone mineral densities (BMDs) with and without cortical bone, and investigate whether some trabecular properties could influence primary stability. Materials and Methods: Fifty-two bone blocks were extracted from fresh bovine pelvic bone. Four groups were created based on bone type (iliac or pubic region) and presence or absence of cortical bone. Specimens were micro-computed tomography imaged to evaluate trabecular thickness, trabecular number, trabecular separation, bone volume density (BV/TV), BMD, and cortical thickness. Miniscrews 1.4 mm in diameter and 6 mm long were inserted into the bone blocks, and primary stability was evaluated by insertion torque (IT), mini-implant mobility (PTV), and pull-out strength (PS). Results: Intergroup comparison showed lower levels of primary stability when the BMD of trabecular bone was lower and in the absence of cortical bone (P ≤ .05). The Pearson correlation test showed correlation between trabecular number, trabecular thickness, BV/TV, trabecular BMD, total BMD, and IT, PTV, and PS. There was correlation between cortical thickness and IT and PS (P ≤ .05). Conclusion: Cancellous bone plays an important role in primary stability of mini-implants in the presence or absence of cortical bone.The Angle Orthodontist 11/2013; DOI:10.2319/052513-39.1 · 1.28 Impact Factor