Population structure of hyperinvasive serotype 12F, clonal complex 218 Streptococcus pneumoniae revealed by multilocus boxB sequence typing.
ABSTRACT At least four outbreaks of invasive disease caused by serotype 12F, clonal complex 218 Streptococcus pneumoniae have occurred in the United States over the past two decades. We studied the population structure of this clonal complex using a sample of 203 outbreak and surveillance isolates that were collected over 22 years from 34 US states and eight other countries. Conventional multilocus sequence typing identified five types and distinguished a single outbreak from the others. To improve typing resolution, multilocus boxB sequence typing (MLBT) was developed from 10 variable boxB minisatellite loci. MLBT identified 86 types and distinguished between each of the four outbreaks. Diversity across boxB loci tended to be positively correlated with repeat array size and, overall, best fit the infinite alleles mutation model. Multilocus linkage disequilibrium was strong, but pairwise disequilibrium decreased with the physical distance between loci and was strongest in one large region of the chromosome, indicating recent recombinations. Two major clusters were identified in the sample, and they were differentiated geographically, as western and more easterly US clusters, and temporally, as clusters that predominated before and after the licensure of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. The diversity and linkage disequilibrium within these two clusters also differed, suggesting different population dynamics. MLBT revealed hidden aspects of the population structure of these hyperinvasive pneumococci, and it may provide a useful adjunct tool for outbreak investigations, surveillance, and population genetics studies of other pneumococcal clonal complexes.
Article: Evaluation and selection of tandem repeat loci for Streptococcus pneumoniae MLVA strain typing.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Precise identification of bacterial pathogens at the strain level is essential for epidemiological purposes. In Streptococcus pneumoniae, the existence of 90 different serotypes makes the typing particularly difficult and requires the use of highly informative tools. Available methods are relatively expensive and cannot be used for large-scale or routine typing of any new isolate. We explore here the potential of MLVA (Multiple Loci VNTR Analysis; VNTR, Variable Number of Tandem Repeats), a method of growing importance in the field of molecular epidemiology, for genotyping of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Available genome sequences were searched for polymorphic tandem repeats. The loci identified were typed across a collection of 56 diverse isolates and including a group of serotype 1 isolates from Africa. Eventually a set of 16 VNTRs was proposed for MLVA-typing of S. pneumoniae. These robust markers were sufficient to discriminate 49 genotypes and to aggregate strains on the basis of the serotype and geographical origin, although some exceptions were found. Such exceptions may reflect serotype switching or horizontal transfer of genetic material. We describe a simple PCR-based MLVA genotyping scheme for S. pneumoniae which may prove to be a powerful complement to existing tools for epidemiological studies. Using this technique we uncovered a clonal population of strains, responsible for infections in Burkina Faso. We believe that the proposed MLVA typing scheme can become a standard for epidemiological studies of S. pneumoniae.BMC Microbiology 02/2005; 5:66. · 3.04 Impact Factor
Article: Geographic distribution and clonal diversity of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 1 isolates.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Serotype 1 pneumococci are a major cause of serious disease and have been associated with outbreaks but are rarely carried. The high attack rate and lack of coverage of this serotype by the heptavalent conjugate vaccine prompted the characterization of a geographically diverse collection of 166 serotype 1 isolates from recent cases of invasive disease. The isolates were resolved by multilocus sequence typing into 16 clones, which clustered into three major lineages with very different geographic distributions. Lineage A isolates were exclusively from Europe and North America, lineage B isolates were predominantly from Africa and Israel, and lineage C isolates were mainly from Chile. There was no clear association between the presence of individual clones within a country and the prevalence of serotype 1 disease.Journal of Clinical Microbiology 12/2003; 41(11):4966-70. · 4.15 Impact Factor
Article: Description and power analysis of two tests for detecting recent population bottlenecks from allele frequency data.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: When a population experiences a reduction of its effective size, it generally develops a heterozygosity excess at selectively neutral loci, i.e., the heterozygosity computed from a sample of genes is larger than the heterozygosity expected from the number of alleles found in the sample if the population were at mutation drift equilibrium. The heterozygosity excess persists only a certain number of generations until a new equilibrium is established. Two statistical tests for detecting a heterozygosity excess are described. They require measurements of the number of alleles and heterozygosity at each of several loci from a population sample. The first test determines if the proportion of loci with heterozygosity excess is significantly larger than expected at equilibrium. The second test establishes if the average of standardized differences between observed and expected heterozygosities is significantly different from zero. Type I and II errors have been evaluated by computer simulations, varying sample size, number of loci, bottleneck size, time elapsed since the beginning of the bottleneck and level of variability of loci. These analyses show that the most useful markers for bottleneck detection are those evolving under the infinite allele model (IAM) and they provide guidelines for selecting sample sizes of individuals and loci. The usefulness of these tests for conservation biology is discussed.Genetics 01/1997; 144(4):2001-14. · 4.01 Impact Factor