Molecular characterization of kidney cancer: Association of hyaluronic acid family with histological subtypes and metastasis

Department of Urology, University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, Florida 33101, USA.
Cancer (Impact Factor: 4.89). 09/2011; 118(9):2394-402. DOI: 10.1002/cncr.26520
Source: PubMed


Molecular profiling of renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) may improve the distinction between oncocytoma and malignant RCC subtypes and aid in early detection of metastasis. The hyaluronic acid (HA) family includes HA synthases (HAS1, HAS2, HAS3), hyaluronidases (HYAL-1, HYAL-2, HYAL-3, HYAL-4, PH20, HYAL-P1), and HA receptors (CD44s, CD44v, RHAMM). HA family members promote tumor growth and metastasis. The authors evaluated the expression of HA family members in kidney specimens.
By using quantitative polymerase chain reaction, mRNA levels of 12 HA family members were measured in tumor specimens obtained from 86 consecutive patients undergoing nephrectomy; 80 of them also provided normal specimens. Mean and median follow-up were 15.2 ± 8.8 and 13.8 months. RCC specimens included clear cell RCC: 65; papillary: 10; chromophobe: 5; oncocytoma: 6; metastasis positive: 17.
Median HAS1, CD44s, and RHAMM transcript levels were elevated 3- to 25-fold in clear cell RCC and papillary and chromophobe tumors when compared with normal tissues. HYAL-4, CD44s, and RHAMM levels were elevated 4- to 12-fold in clear cell RCC and papillary tumors when compared with oncocytomas; only HYAL-4 levels distinguished between chromophobe and oncocytoma (P = .009). CD44s and RHAMM levels were significantly higher in tumors <4 cm (510 ± 611 and 19.6 ± 20.8, respectively) when compared with oncocytoma (46.4 ± 20 and 3.8 ± 2.5; P ≤ .006). In univariate and multivariate analyses, CD44s (P < .0001), RHAMM (P < .0001), stage, tumor size, and/or renal vein involvement were significantly associated with metastasis. The combined CD44s + RHAMM marker had 82% sensitivity and 86% specificity to predict metastasis.
CD44s and RHAMM levels distinguish between oncocytoma and RCC subtypes regardless of tumor size and are potential predictors of RCC metastasis.

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Available from: Travis Yates, Oct 07, 2015
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    • "Our cytometry assay revealed that the two cell lines were positive for CD44 but negative for CD133, CD105, and CD74. CD44 is a hyaluronic acid receptor whose mRNA levels in tumors can distinguish between RCC subtypes and RCC subtypes from oncocytoma and predict RCC metastasis [17]. Unexpectedly, the two cell lines were negative for CD105, a possible marker of ccRCC-initiation cells [10]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) cell lines with distinct metastatic potential are essential to study the mechanism of ccRCC metastasis. However, none of them originated from Chinese. Primary cell cultures were performed using a primary tumor of a 49-year-old male ccRCC patient and a metastatic tumor of a 62-year-old male patient who had received nephrectomy to excise primary ccRCC 10 years ago. Cell growth, microstructure, cytogenetics, cytometry, expression of metastasis-associated molecules, tumorigenesis and metastasis were subsequently characterized. Two successive cell lines named NRCC from the primary ccRCC and MRCC from the metastatic ccRCC were established, respectively. Compared to NRCC, MRCC exhibited stronger anchorage-independent growth and invasion potentials and contained more glycogen granules in the cytoplasm. Gains of chromosomes and some translocations were the major chromosomal aberrations in both cell strains. CD24 expression was more frequent in MRCC than in NRCC and the same was true for CD56. The transcriptional levels of TNFα, IL-6, VEGF, HIF2α, MMP2, and RhoC were significantly higher in MRCC than in NRCC. Cytosolic IκBα protein was more degraded in MRCC than in NRCC following TNFα treatment. Both cell lines had strong tumorigenicity in athymic nude mice. However, MRCC had strong potential in generating metastasis to lung and hemorrhagic ascites than NRCC following orthotopic transplantations. Cancer cells isolated from metastatic ccRCC have more malignant and metastatic potential than those from the primary tumor from the patients who shared the similar race background. Establishment of MRCC and NRCC may provide suitable models with which to investigate molecular mechanisms of ccRCC metastasis.
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