HIV Incidence among Men Who Have Sex with Men in China: A Meta-Analysis of Published Studies

Vanderbilt University, United States of America
PLoS ONE (Impact Factor: 3.53). 08/2011; 6(8):e23431. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0023431
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Men who have sex with men (MSM) have now become one of the priority populations for prevention and control of HIV pandemic in China. Information of HIV incidence among MSM is important to describe the spreading of the infection and predict its trends in this population. We reviewed the published literature on the incidence of HIV infection among MSM in China.
We identified relevant studies by use of a comprehensive strategy including searches of Medline and two Chinese electronic publication databases from January 2005 to September 2010. Point estimate of random effects incidence with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) of HIV infection was carried out using the Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software. Subgroup analyses were examined separately, stratified by study design and geographic location.
Twelve studies were identified, including three cohort studies and nine cross-sectional studies. The subgroup analyses revealed that the sub-overall incidence estimates were 3.5% (95% CI, 1.7%-5.3%) and 6.7% (95% CI, 4.8%-8.6%) for cohort and cross-sectional studies, respectively (difference between the sub-overalls, Q = 5.54, p = 0.02); and 8.3% (95% CI, 6.9%-9.7%) and 4.6% (95% CI, 2.4%-6.9%) for studies in Chongqing and other areas, respectively (difference between the sub-overalls, Q = 7.58, p<0.01). Syphilis infection (RR = 3.33, p<0.001), multiple sex partnerships (RR = 2.81, p<0.001), and unprotected receptive anal intercourse in the past six months (RR = 3.88, p = 0.007) represented significant risk for HIV seroconversion.
Findings from this meta-analysis indicate that HIV incidence is substantial in MSM in China. High incidence of HIV infection and unique patterns of sexual risk behaviors in this population serve as a call for action that should be answered with the innovative social and public health intervention strategies, and development of biological prevention strategies.

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    • "The proportion of new HIV cases among Chinese MSM has surged from 0.2% in 2001 to 29.4% in 2011, and the major risk in this population is unprotected anal sex [2] [3] [4]. Prospective cohort studies have shown that Chinese MSM who experienced unprotected anal intercourse or had multiple male partners were 3–10 times more likely to encounter HIV seroconversion than MSM not practicing these risk behaviors [5] [6] [7] [8]. Alcohol abuse is a factor in a variety of medical, social, and public health problems. "
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    ABSTRACT: The HIV/AIDS epidemic among Chinese men who have sex with men (MSM) has become a significant public health concern. Knowledge of alcohol consumption in this population is limited. In this study, 1,155 Chinese MSM were surveyed to assess alcohol use and its correlates. A meta-analysis was also performed to aggregate pooled prevalence of current alcohol use. MSM who were unmarried (aOR: 1.87; 95% CI: 1.29-2.71) or unemployed/retired (aOR: 2.77; 95% CI: 1.73-4.45) were more likely to drink alcohol more than once per week. MSM who consumed alcohol more than once per week were more likely to use drug (P < 0.01), have sex with women (P < 0.01), have unprotected insertive (P = 0.04) or receptive (P = 0.03) anal sex with men, have more than 10 lifetime male sex partners (P < 0.01), predominantly practice insertive anal sex (P < 0.01), and trade sex for money (P < 0.01). Pooled overall alcohol use prevalence was 32%. Pooled prevalence for MSM who drank alcohol more than once per week and who drank alcohol before sex with male partners was 23%. Our findings provide the basis for further exploring the alcohol-HIV association and developing risk reduction interventions.
    03/2014; 2014:414381. DOI:10.1155/2014/414381
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    • "Other studies conducted among general population women in South Africa have also documented high HIV incidence rates (Kharsany et al., 2010a,b). These rates of HIV acquisition among general population women in parts of Africa are striking, as they are comparable or often higher than those observed among high-risk populations such as female sex workers (Braunstein et al., 2011; Ghys et al., 2001), men who have sex with men (Li et al., 2011), or injecting drug users (Des Jarlais et al., 2000; Ghys et al., 2001). "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Representative and precise estimates for the annual risk of HIV transmission (ϕ) from the infected to the uninfected partner in a stable HIV-1 sero-discordant couple (SDC) are not available. Nevertheless, quantifying HIV infectiousness is critical to understanding HIV epidemiology and implementing prevention programs. Materials and methods We estimated ϕ and examined its variation across 23 countries in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) by constructing and analyzing a mathematical model that describes HIV dynamics among SDCs. The model was parameterized using empirical measures such as those of the nationally representative Demographic and Health Surveys. Uncertainty and sensitivity analyses were conducted to assess the robustness of the findings. Results We estimated a median ϕ of 11.1 per 100 person-years across SSA. A clustering based on HIV population prevalence was observed with a median ϕ of 7.5 per 100 person-years in low HIV prevalence countries (<5%) compared to 19.5 per 100 person-years in high prevalence countries (>5%). The association with HIV prevalence explained 67% of the variation in ϕ, and suggested an increase of 0.95 per 100 person-years in ϕ for every 1% increase in HIV prevalence. Conclusions Empirical measures from cohort studies appear to underestimate HIV infectiousness in SSA. The risk of HIV transmission among SDCs appears also to vary across SSA, and this may have contributed to the contrasting HIV epidemic trajectories in this continent.
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