Article

HIV Incidence among Men Who Have Sex with Men in China: A Meta-Analysis of Published Studies

Vanderbilt University, United States of America
PLoS ONE (Impact Factor: 3.23). 08/2011; 6(8):e23431. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0023431
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Men who have sex with men (MSM) have now become one of the priority populations for prevention and control of HIV pandemic in China. Information of HIV incidence among MSM is important to describe the spreading of the infection and predict its trends in this population. We reviewed the published literature on the incidence of HIV infection among MSM in China.
We identified relevant studies by use of a comprehensive strategy including searches of Medline and two Chinese electronic publication databases from January 2005 to September 2010. Point estimate of random effects incidence with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) of HIV infection was carried out using the Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software. Subgroup analyses were examined separately, stratified by study design and geographic location.
Twelve studies were identified, including three cohort studies and nine cross-sectional studies. The subgroup analyses revealed that the sub-overall incidence estimates were 3.5% (95% CI, 1.7%-5.3%) and 6.7% (95% CI, 4.8%-8.6%) for cohort and cross-sectional studies, respectively (difference between the sub-overalls, Q = 5.54, p = 0.02); and 8.3% (95% CI, 6.9%-9.7%) and 4.6% (95% CI, 2.4%-6.9%) for studies in Chongqing and other areas, respectively (difference between the sub-overalls, Q = 7.58, p<0.01). Syphilis infection (RR = 3.33, p<0.001), multiple sex partnerships (RR = 2.81, p<0.001), and unprotected receptive anal intercourse in the past six months (RR = 3.88, p = 0.007) represented significant risk for HIV seroconversion.
Findings from this meta-analysis indicate that HIV incidence is substantial in MSM in China. High incidence of HIV infection and unique patterns of sexual risk behaviors in this population serve as a call for action that should be answered with the innovative social and public health intervention strategies, and development of biological prevention strategies.

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    • "Our study found HIV prevalence to be much higher in MSM with current syphilis and syphilis was shown as a probable risk factor for HIV infection. That syphilis may facilitate HIV transmission among MSM is not surprising, and reinforces the need for aggressive public health measures to combat sexually transmitted infections [20,23,24]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Men who have sex with men (MSM) represent the fastest growing key population for incident HIV cases in China. We examined five consecutive years of HIV and syphilis prevalence and risk factors data among MSM in Guangxi Province with the second highest estimated number of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs) in China in 2011. Methods We collected demographic and behavioral data from national sentinel surveillance and HIV/syphilis blood samples in five annual cross-sectional surveys from 2008 to 2012. We analyzed HIV and syphilis prevalence trends stratified by social/behavioral characteristics. Results HIV prevalence climbed steadily from 1.7% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.0 to 3.0) in 2008 to 3.7% (95% CI: 3.0 to 5.0) in 2012. Syphilis prevalence increased steadily from 5.1% (95% CI: 4.0 to 6.0) in 2008 to 8.4% (95% CI: 7.0 to 10.0) in 2012. HIV prevalence rose notably among MSM who were ≤25 years of age, never married, did not engage in sexual intercourse with women in the past six months, and had not been tested for HIV in the past year. Syphilis prevalence rose notably among MSM who were >25 years of age, ever married or living with a partner, and engaged in sexual intercourse with women in the past six months. HIV prevalence was much higher in MSM with current syphilis than without. Finally, current syphilis was the most significant predictor of HIV infection, and age was the most significant predictor of syphilis infection. Conclusions HIV and the syphilis prevalence expansion among MSM suggest an urgent public health prevention challenge for Guangxi provincial health officials. Risk factors for each infection differed such that all MSM, each of whom might be at risk of HIV, syphilis or both, should be targets for heavy intervention.
    BMC Infectious Diseases 07/2014; 14(1):367. DOI:10.1186/1471-2334-14-367 · 2.61 Impact Factor
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    • "In China, meta-analyses among MSM indicated HIV prevalence rates in the range of 3.2%–15.8% for studies conducted during 2005–2008 [4] and a pooled syphilis prevalence of 9.1% for studies conducted from 2001 to 2008 [5]. A large national survey of 47,231 MSM in China indicated HIV and syphilis prevalence rates of 4.9% and 11.8% in 2008, respectively [6]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective. To investigate factors associated with HIV infection and the frequency and willingness of male circumcision among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Chengdu city, China. Methods. A cross-sectional survey provided information on participants' demographics, risk behaviors, circumcision, and uptake of HIV prevention services. Results. Of 570 participants, 13.3% were infected with HIV and 15.9% with syphilis. An estimated 43.0% of respondents reported having unprotected receptive anal intercourse, and 58.9% reported having ≥2 male sexual partners in the past 6 months. Multivariable logistic regression revealed that syphilis, more male sex partners, predominantly receptive anal intercourse, and exclusively receptive male sex were associated with HIV infection. Higher level of education and peer education service were inversely associated with HIV infection. Nearly a fifth (18.0%) of participants were circumcised. More than half of uncircumcised participants expressed willingness to be circumcised. Conclusion. This study reveals a high prevalence of HIV and syphilis among MSM in Chengdu province of China. The frequency of unprotected receptive anal intercourse and multiple male sexual partnerships highlight the urgency for an effective comprehensive HIV prevention strategy. Although the willingness to accept male circumcision (MC) is high, further research is needed to assess the protective effective of MC among MSM.
    03/2014; 2014:498987. DOI:10.1155/2014/498987
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    • "The proportion of new HIV cases among Chinese MSM has surged from 0.2% in 2001 to 29.4% in 2011, and the major risk in this population is unprotected anal sex [2] [3] [4]. Prospective cohort studies have shown that Chinese MSM who experienced unprotected anal intercourse or had multiple male partners were 3–10 times more likely to encounter HIV seroconversion than MSM not practicing these risk behaviors [5] [6] [7] [8]. Alcohol abuse is a factor in a variety of medical, social, and public health problems. "
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    ABSTRACT: The HIV/AIDS epidemic among Chinese men who have sex with men (MSM) has become a significant public health concern. Knowledge of alcohol consumption in this population is limited. In this study, 1,155 Chinese MSM were surveyed to assess alcohol use and its correlates. A meta-analysis was also performed to aggregate pooled prevalence of current alcohol use. MSM who were unmarried (aOR: 1.87; 95% CI: 1.29-2.71) or unemployed/retired (aOR: 2.77; 95% CI: 1.73-4.45) were more likely to drink alcohol more than once per week. MSM who consumed alcohol more than once per week were more likely to use drug (P < 0.01), have sex with women (P < 0.01), have unprotected insertive (P = 0.04) or receptive (P = 0.03) anal sex with men, have more than 10 lifetime male sex partners (P < 0.01), predominantly practice insertive anal sex (P < 0.01), and trade sex for money (P < 0.01). Pooled overall alcohol use prevalence was 32%. Pooled prevalence for MSM who drank alcohol more than once per week and who drank alcohol before sex with male partners was 23%. Our findings provide the basis for further exploring the alcohol-HIV association and developing risk reduction interventions.
    03/2014; 2014:414381. DOI:10.1155/2014/414381
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