Thermobifida fusca exoglucanase Cel6B is incompatible with the cellulosomal mode in contrast to endoglucanase Cel6A.

Systems and Synthetic Biology 09/2010; 4(3):193-201. DOI: 10.1007/s11693-010-9056-1
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Cellulosomes are efficient cellulose-degradation systems produced by selected anaerobic bacteria. This multi-enzyme complex is assembled from a group of cellulases attached to a protein scaffold termed scaffoldin, mediated by a high-affinity protein-protein interaction between the enzyme-borne dockerin module and the cohesin module of the scaffoldin. The enzymatic complex is attached as a whole to the cellulosic substrate via a cellulose-binding module (CBM) on the scaffoldin subunit. In previous works, we have employed a synthetic biology approach to convert several of the free cellulases of the aerobic bacterium, Thermobifida fusca, into the cellulosomal mode by replacing each of the enzymes' CBM with a dockerin. Here we show that although family six enzymes are not a part of any known cellulosomal system, the two family six enzymes of the T. fusca system (endoglucanase Cel6A and exoglucanase Cel6B) can be converted to work as cellulosomal enzymes. Indeed, the chimaeric dockerin-containing family six endoglucanase worked well as a cellulosomal enzyme, and proved to be more efficient than the parent enzyme when present in designer cellulosomes. In stark contrast, the chimaeric family six exoglucanase was markedly less efficient than the wild-type enzyme when mixed with other T. fusca cellulases, thus indicating its incompatibility with the cellulosomal mode of action.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Improved stability of cellulosomal enzymes is of great significance in order to provide efficient degradation of cellulosic derivatives for production of biofuels. In previous reports, we created a quadruple mutant of the endoglucanase Cel8A from Clostridium thermocellum resulting from a combination of both random error-prone PCR and a bioinformatics-based consensus mutagenesis approach. The quadruple mutant exhibited an increased half-life of activity by 14-fold at 85°C with no apparent loss of catalytic activity compared to the wild-type form. Connection of the wild-type enzyme to its respective cohesin partner conferred increased thermostability, but no increase was observed for the cohesin-complexed mutant enzyme. The mutant and the wild-type enzymes were integrated into divalent chimaeric scaffoldins with a family 48 exoglucanase partner, and the cellulose-degradation activities of resultant designer cellulosomes were examined. Despite the heightened thermostability of the mutant as a free enzyme, its substitution for the wild-type endoglucanase within the cellulosome context failed to exhibit an improvement in overall degradation of cellulose.
    Carbohydrate research 01/2014; · 2.03 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Efficient conversion of cellulose into soluble sugars is a key technological bottleneck limiting efficient production of plant-derived biofuels and chemicals. In nature, the process is achieved by the action of a wide range of cellulases and associated enzymes. In aerobic microrganisms, cellulases are secreted as free enzymes. Alternatively, in certain anaerobic microbes, cellulases are assembled into large multienzymes complexes, termed "cellulosomes," which allow for efficient hydrolysis of cellulose. Recently, it has been shown that enzymes classified as lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) were able to strongly enhance the activity of cellulases. However, LPMOs are exclusively found in aerobic organisms and, thus, cannot benefit from the advantages offered by the cellulosomal system. In this study, we designed several dockerin-fused LPMOs based on enzymes from the bacterium Thermobifida fusca. The resulting chimeras exhibited activity levels on microcrystalline cellulose similar to that of the wild-type enzymes. The dockerin moieties of the chimeras were demonstrated to be functional and to specifically bind to their corresponding cohesin partner. The chimeric LPMOs were able to self-assemble in designer cellulosomes alongside an endo- and an exo-cellulase also converted to the cellulosomal mode. The resulting complexes showed a 1.7-fold increase in the release of soluble sugars from cellulose, compared with the free enzymes, and a 2.6-fold enhancement compared with free cellulases without LPMO enhancement. These results highlight the feasibility of the conversion of LPMOs to the cellulosomal mode, and that these enzymes can benefit from the proximity effects generated by the cellulosome architecture.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 06/2014;
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Second generation biofuel development is increasingly reliant on the recombinant expression of cellulases. Designing or identifying successful expression systems is thus of preeminent importance to industrial progress in the field. Recombinant production of cellulases has been performed using a wide range of expression systems in bacteria, yeasts and plants. In a number of these systems, particularly when using bacteria and plants, significant challenges have been experienced in expressing full-length proteins or proteins at high yield. Further difficulties have been encountered in designing recombinant systems for surface-display of cellulases and for use in consolidated bioprocessing in bacteria and yeast. For establishing cellulase expression in plants, various strategies are utilized to overcome problems, such as the auto-hydrolysis of developing plant cell walls. In this review, we investigate the major challenges, as well as the major advances made to date in the recombinant expression of cellula
    Biotechnology for Biofuels 01/2014; 7(1):135. · 5.55 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
Jun 4, 2014