This project was undertaken to assess the risk of malignancy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated with tumour necrosis factor inhibitors (TNFi) in clinical practice, as recorded in prospective, observational studies.
The authors undertook comprehensive searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and American College of Rheumatology, European League against Rheumatism and British Society for Rheumatology conference abstracts according to a prespecified protocol.
The searches identified 2039 full-text papers and 1979 conference abstracts, of which 21 full texts and eight abstracts met the inclusion criteria. The pooled estimate for the risk of all-site malignancy from seven studies was 0.95 (95% CI 0.85 to 1.05). Two studies reported there was no evidence that longer exposure to TNFi agents increased the risk of malignancy. In patients with previous malignancies there was a higher risk of a new/recurring malignancy. This risk was not increased further by exposure to TNFi, although CI were wide. Results from four studies showed that patients treated with TNFi have a significantly increased risk of developing a non-melanoma skin cancer (1.45, 95% CI 1.15 to 1.76). In addition, patients are at an increased risk of developing melanoma, as the pooled estimate from two studies was 1.79 (95% CI 0.92 to 2.67). The pooled estimate for the risk of lymphoma was 1.11 (95% CI 0.70 to 1.51).
This systematic review and meta-analysis shows that TNFi treatments do not increase the risk of malignancy, particularly lymphoma. However, they do appear to increase the risk of skin cancer, including melanoma.
"Use of disease-modifying treatment that controls chronic inflammation may reduce the elevated risk associated with uncontrolled RA. Recent long-term studies have failed to identify an effect of TNF antagonists on the incidence of cancer, including lymphoma (with exception of NMSC), and also determined that the relative risk of cancer did not increase with time since first starting a TNF antagonist or with cumulative duration of TNF antagonist therapy [31-33]. Lastly, mortality rates were lower in patients receiving ADA therapy in ReAct and ReAlise than observed in a matched population without RA, and there was no increase in the overall mortality rate over the course of the studies. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients with active rheumatoid arthritis who had failed at least one disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug (DMARD) were treated with adalimumab (ADA) in the ReAct study with the option to continue treatment for 5 years in ReAlise. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term safety and effectiveness of ADA as prescribed from first injection in ReAct to last observation in ReAlise.
Patients received ADA alone or in combination with DMARDs according to usual clinical care practices. Adverse events (AEs) were tabulated by five time windows after the first ADA injection. Effectiveness measures included achievement of low disease activity (LDA), defined as Simplified Disease Activity Index (SDAI) <=11, or remission, (REM), defined as SDAI <=3.3.
Of the 6,610 ReAct patients, 3,435 (52%) continued in ReAlise. At baseline in ReAct, mean age was 54 years, mean DAS28 was 6.0 and mean HAQ DI was 1.64. The mean treatment duration was 1,016 days, representing 18,272 patient-years (PYs) of ADA exposure. Overall incidence rates of serious AEs and serious infections were 13.8 and 2.8 events (E)/100 patient years (PYs), respectively. Serious AEs occurred most frequently in the first 6 months and deceased thereafter. Standardized mortality ratio was 0.71 [95% CI 0.57-0.87] and standardized incidence ratio for malignancies was 0.64 [95% CI 0.53-0.76]. LDA was achieved by 50% and REM by 21% of patients at last observation.
Results of this large observational study of ADA in routine clinical practice were consistent with controlled trials, with no new safety concerns during a follow-up of more than 5 years. Effectiveness of ADA was maintained during long-term observation.Trial registration: NCT00448383, NCT00234884.
"A recent meta-analysis of 7 prospective studies on all-site malignancies reported a lack of evidence that patients with RA treated with TNF blockers are at increased risk of malignancies when compared with nonexposed RA patients (pooled relative risk = 0.95, 95% CI: 0.85–1.05) . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Malignancy risk may be increased in chronic inflammatory conditions that are mediated by tumor necrosis factor (TNF), such as juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), but the role of TNF in human cancer biology is unclear. In response to a 2011 United States Food & Drug Administration requirement of TNF blocker manufacturers, we evaluated reporting rates of all malignancies in patients =30 years old who received the TNF blocker etanercept.
All malignancies in etanercept-exposed patients aged =30 years from the Amgen clinical trial database (CTD) and postmarketing global safety database (PMD) were reviewed. PMD reporting rates were generated using exposure information based on commercial sources. Age-specific incidence rates of malignancy for the general US population were generated from the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database v7.0.9.
There were 2 malignancies in the CTD: 1 each in etanercept and placebo/comparator arms (both in patients 18-30 years old). Postmarketing etanercept exposure was 231,404 patient-years (62,379 patient-years in patients 0-17 years; 168,485 patient-years in patients 18-30 years). Reporting rates of malignancy per 100,000 patient-years in the PMD and incidence rates in SEER were 32.0 and 15.9, respectively, for patients 0-17 years and 46.9 and 42.1 for patients 18-30 years old. Reporting rates were higher than SEER incidence rates for Hodgkin lymphoma in the 0-17 years age group. PMD reporting rates per 100,000 patient-years and SEER incidence rates per 100,000 person-years for Hodgkin lymphoma were 9.54 and 0.9, respectively, for patients 0-17 years and 1.8 and 4.2 for patients 18-30 years old. There were =5 cases of leukemia, lymphoma, melanoma, thyroid, and cervical cancers. Leukemia, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, melanoma, thyroid cancer, and cervical cancer rates were similar in the PMD and SEER.
Overall PMD malignancy reporting rates in etanercept-treated patients 0-17 years appeared higher than incidence rates in SEER, attributable to rates of Hodgkin lymphoma. Comparison to patients with similar burden of disease cannot be made; JIA, particularly very active disease, may be a risk factor for lymphoma. No increased malignancy reporting rate in the PMD relative to SEER was observed in the young-adult age group.
"An initial meta-analysis published in 2006 by Bongartz et al.  reported a 3.3-fold dose-dependent increase in malignancies associated with infliximab in RA patients. A 2011 meta-analysis by Mariette et al.  analyzing data from 21 prospective observational studies on anti-TNF biologics in RA found that although anti-TNF biologics are not associated with an increase in malignancies, especially lymphoma, they are associated with an increase in the risk of skin cancer, including melanoma. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inflammation and cancer have a profound yet ambiguous relationship. Inflammation - especially chronic inflammation - has protumorigenic effects, but inflammatory cells also mediate an immune response against the tumor and immunosuppression is known to increase the risk for certain tumors.
This article reviews current literature on the role of inflammation in cancer and the cancer risk in immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMIDs). We discuss the effect on cancer risk of different drug classes used in the treatment of IMIDs treatment, including biologicals such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors.
Overall cancer incidence and mortality risk are similar to the general population in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and slightly increased for rheumatoid arthritis and psoriasis, with risk profiles differing for different tumor types. Increased risk for non-melanoma skin cancer is associated with thiopurine treatment in IBD, with the combination of anti-TNF and methotrexate in rheumatoid arthritis and with PUVA, cyclosporine and anti-TNF treatment in psoriasis. Data on the safety of using biologic or immunosuppressant therapy in IMID patients with a history of cancer are scarce.
This review provides clinicians with a solid background to help them in making decisions about treatment of immune-mediated diseases in patients with a tumor history.
This article is related to another review article in Molecular Cancer: http://www.molecular-cancer.com/content/12/1/86.
Molecular Cancer 08/2013; 12(1):98. DOI:10.1186/1476-4598-12-98 · 4.26 Impact Factor
K. K. Lingutla, R. Pollock, E. Benomran, B. Purushothaman, A. Kasis, C. K. Bhatia, M. Krishna, T. Friesem
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