Fatty Liver, Abdominal Visceral Fat, and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors The Jackson Heart Study

Jackson Heart Study, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson State University, Jackson, MS 39213-4505, USA.
Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology (Impact Factor: 6). 09/2011; 31(11):2715-22. DOI: 10.1161/ATVBAHA.111.234062
Source: PubMed


The goal of this study was to examine whether fatty liver and abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT) are jointly associated with cardiometabolic abnormalities.
Black participants were from the Jackson Heart Study (n=2882, 65% women) who underwent computed tomography. Fatty liver was measured by liver attenuation in Hounsfield units (LA), and VAT was quantified volumetrically. Cross-sectional associations between LA, VAT, and cardiometabolic risk factors were assessed using linear and logistic regression, and their joint associations were further examined in 4 subgroups: high-LA/low-VAT (n=1704), low-LA/low-VAT (n=422), high-LA/high-VAT (n=436), and low-LA/high-VAT (n=320). Both LA and VAT were associated with most cardiometabolic traits (all P<0.0001), which persisted after additional adjustment for each other (LA, P<0.01-0.0001; VAT, P<0.0001). In bootstrap analyses, the regression coefficient of VAT was significantly greater than LA for triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, impaired glucose, and metabolic syndrome (P=0.009-0.0001). The interaction between LA and VAT was significant for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P=0.002), impaired glucose (P=0.003), and metabolic syndrome (P=0.04). Among 4 subgroups, participants with higher VAT and lower LA had higher prevalence of cardiometabolic traits than those with each condition alone.
Both fatty liver and VAT are independent correlates of cardiometabolic risk, but the associations are stronger for VAT than for fatty liver.

Download full-text


Available from: Aurelian Bidulescu,
  • Source
    • "But despite these strong correlations, gender and race influences these interpretations [25,26]. Excess adipose tissue in the visceral compartment has been associated with increased CVD risk in large prospective studies: the Framingham and the Jackson Heart studies [27,28]. In the present study with the overall body weight gain we were able to demonstrate a significant increase in body fat [+2%] and visceral adipose tissue volume [+0.2(0.03) "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The link between weight gain and cardiovascular risk characterized with circadian blood pressure variability [CBPV] and endothelial function [EF] is unexplored. To prospectively demonstrate weight gain in healthy adults, increases body fat [BF], enlarges waist circumference [WC], expands visceral adipose tissue [VAT], exacerbates systemic inflammation [sIF], worsens insulin resistance [IR] and enhances functional cardiovascular disease [CVD] risk. Design, setting and participants Healthy men [n=11] and women [n=3] provided initial and eight-week post-caloric excess anthropometric and fasting laboratory measures. Functional CVD risk assessments: CBPV and resting EF were also obtained with 7-day automatic ambulatory BP monitoring and increased test finger peripheral arterial tone [PAT] relative to control [reported as relative hyperemia index (RHI)], respectively. After determining individualized mean energy requirements for weight maintenance over 7-days, each participant received a personalized over feeding prescription (1.4 times; 41% carbohydrate, 44% fat, and 15% protein) for 8-weeks. mean (SEM). Participants increased body weight [BW; +7.4(0.1) kg]*, body mass index [BMI; +2.5(0.2) kg/m2]*, BF [+2.0(0.01)%]*, WC [+8.2(1.0) cm]*, and VAT [+0.2(0.03) L]* and intrahepatic lipid [IHL + 0.0004(0.002) L] :*all p < 0.01. Increased subcutaneous adipose cell size [+0.3(0.01) ρL; p = 0.02] accompanied significant sIF [hs-CRP + 0.4(0.09) mg/dL; p = 0.04; leptin 6.63 ng/ml; p = 0.0008] and IR [fasting plasma glucose; [FPG] +7.0(0.6) mg/dL;p = 0.01, fasting insulin; [FI] +5.7(1.4) uIU/ml; p = 0.001, HOMA-IR +1.6(0.5); p = 0.02]. Abn CBPV {systolic [+5.4(0.8); p = 0.002, diastolic [+1.7(0.1); p = 0.07 and pulse pressure [PP] [+3.5(0.4); p = 0.003 mm Hg} or elevated heart rate [HR] [+4.9(0.5) bpm; p = 0.003] ensued. Resting RHI declined by 0.47(0.004) from initial 2.24(0.09) to 1.77(0.1); p = 0.001, indicating endothelial dysfunction [ED]. Controlled caloric excess in healthy human adults over only 8-weeks significantly increased BF, VAT, sIF [hs-CRP], IR [FPG, FI, HOMA-IR] and functional CVD risk [measured as abnormal circadian blood pressure variability and impaired resting endothelial function].
    Cardiovascular Diabetology 01/2013; 12(1):23. DOI:10.1186/1475-2840-12-23 · 4.02 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: South Asians have a higher risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that remains largely unexplained. We hypothesized that the increased CVD risk in South Asians compared to Europeans is mediated through higher levels of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) in South Asians compared to total body fat and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAT). South Asians (207) and Europeans (201) underwent assessment for demographics, body fat, and risk factors. Linear regression models were created by sex for each risk factor to explore mediation effects of total body fat, SAT, and VAT adjusted for age, income, smoking, and BMI (menopausal status for women). Mediation was based on changes in the ethnicity β coefficient due to additional adjustment for our adipose variable of interest and the Sobel test for mediation. South Asians had worse lipid, glucose, insulin, and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels than Europeans after adjusting for confounders. Most of these differences remained even after further adjustment by either total body fat or SAT. In contrast, VAT attenuated the ethnic differences in risk factors by 16%-52%. After adjusting for VAT, there were no longer ethnic differences in total cholesterol (TC), LDL-C, TC/HDL-C, glucose, and diastolic blood pressure (BP) in men, and in HDL-C, triglycerides (TG), TC/HDL-C, and homeostasis model (HOMA) in women, and VAT was a significant mediator for these risk factors. Higher levels of risk factors for CVD in South Asians are predominantly because of the unique phenotype of South Asians having greater VAT than Europeans even at the same BMI.
    Obesity 01/2012; 20(6):1293-300. DOI:10.1038/oby.2011.395 · 3.73 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Excess total and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality remain very high among those with type 2 diabetes versus those without diabetes. Clinical trials to lower blood glucose have been disappointing probably because the participants were too late in the natural history of diabetes and already had extensive vascular disease. Insulin resistance measured simply by elevated fasting blood insulin is an early marker of β-cell stress and peripheral insulin resistance. Metformin will prevent development of diabetes among patients with impaired fasting glucose but only for the short term. Metformin reduces risk of coronary heart disease. The drug is safe, low cost, and may also prevent cancer. The combination of diet and exercise followed by metformin in the early phase of "insulin resistance" may reduce or delay both atherosclerosis and arteriosclerosis complications associated with diabetes. Preventive therapy must begin much earlier than before clinical diagnosis of diabetes and aim to initially lower blood insulin levels or insulin resistance.
    Current Diabetes Reports 03/2012; 12(3):265-73. DOI:10.1007/s11892-012-0263-x · 3.08 Impact Factor
Show more