Direct-to-Consumer Genetic Testing: Reliable or Risky?
- SourceAvailable from: Muin J Khoury[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Purpose:Direct-to-consumer personal genomic tests are widely available, but population-based data are limited on awareness and use of these tests among the general public in the United States.Methods:We assessed awareness and use of direct-to-consumer personal genomic tests in Connecticut, Michigan, Oregon, and Utah using the 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and compared the state results to the 2008 national HealthStyles survey results.Results:Awareness was the highest in Oregon (29.1%) and the lowest in Michigan (15.8%). Factors associated with awareness across all states and nationally were higher education, higher income, and increasing age, except among those 75 years or older. Less than 1% of respondents had used the tests, with about one-half to three-quarters of those sharing the results with a health-care provider.Conclusions:Awareness of direct-to-consumer genetic tests is greater in this study as compared with a related study conducted in 2006, whereas use is similarly low in both studies. The few respondents who reported using the tests often reported sharing their results with their health-care provider, indicating an important opportunity for health-care providers to offer patient education regarding these tests. Public health agencies have important roles in surveillance, education, and policy development on direct-to-consumer genomic tests.Genet Med 2012:14(10):860-867.Genetics in medicine: official journal of the American College of Medical Genetics 07/2012; 14(10):860-7. DOI:10.1038/gim.2012.67 · 6.44 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Direct-to-consumer (DTC) DNA testing has grown from contentious beginnings into a global industry, by providing a wide range of personal genomic information directly to its clients. These companies, typified by the well-established 23andMe, generally carry out a gene-chip analysis of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) using DNA extracted from a saliva sample. These genetic data are then assimilated and provided direct to the client, with varying degrees of interpretation. Although much debate has focused on the limitations and ethical aspects of providing genotypes for disease risk alleles, the provision of pharmacogenetic results by DTC companies is less studied. We set out to evaluate current DTC pharmacogenetics offerings, and then to consider how these services might best evolve and adapt in order to play a potentially useful future role in delivery of personalized medicine.Frontiers in Pharmacology 08/2012; 3:152. DOI:10.3389/fphar.2012.00152
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ABSTRACT: Advances in genomics have near-term impact on diagnosis and management of monogenic disorders. For common complex diseases, the use of genomic information from multiple loci (polygenic model) is generally not useful for diagnosis and individual prediction. In principle, the polygenic model could be used along with other risk factors in stratified population screening to target interventions. For example, compared to age-based criterion for breast, colorectal, and prostate cancer screening, adding polygenic risk and family history holds promise for more efficient screening with earlier start and/or increased frequency of screening for segments of the population at higher absolute risk than an established screening threshold; and later start and/or decreased frequency of screening for segments of the population at lower risks. This approach, while promising, faces formidable challenges for building its evidence base and for its implementation in practice. Currently, it is unclear whether or not polygenic risk can contribute enough discrimination to make stratified screening worthwhile. Empirical data are lacking on population-based age-specific absolute risks combining genetic and non-genetic factors, on impact of polygenic risk genes on disease natural history, as well as information on comparative balance of benefits and harms of stratified interventions. Implementation challenges include difficulties in integration of this information in the current health-care system in the United States, the setting of appropriate risk thresholds, and ethical, legal, and social issues. In an era of direct-to-consumer availability of personal genomic information, the public health and health-care systems need to prepare for an evidence-based integration of this information into population screening.Genet Med advance online publication 14 February 2013Genetics in Medicine (2013); doi:10.1038/gim.2012.182.Genetics in medicine: official journal of the American College of Medical Genetics 02/2013; 15(6). DOI:10.1038/gim.2012.182 · 6.44 Impact Factor