Resistin Levels in Lupus and Associations with Disease-specific Measures, Insulin Resistance, and Coronary Calcification
ABSTRACT To evaluate levels of resistin in female subjects with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) compared to age and race-matched controls and to determine the relationship between resistin and systemic inflammation, disease measures, and coronary artery calcification (CAC).
Resistin levels were measured on stored samples from 159 women with SLE and 70 controls as an extension of a previous cross-sectional study. Spearman correlations and multivariable regressions were used to examine whether resistin levels were associated with SLE, disease-specific and inflammatory markers, insulin resistance, and CAC.
In a multivariable linear regression model, a diagnosis of SLE was significantly associated with higher resistin levels independent of age, race, renal function, body mass index (BMI), high-sensitivity CRP (hsCRP), hypertension, diabetes, and steroid use. In SLE, resistin levels correlated positively with Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics Damage Index, glomerular filtration rate (GFR), hsCRP, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, homocysteine, and disease duration (all p < 0.03). Resistin level did not correlate with markers of insulin resistance or body adiposity, including homeostatic model assessment or BMI. Resistin levels were significantly elevated in SLE cases with CAC compared to cases without CAC (16.58 vs 13.10 ng/ml, respectively; p = 0.04). In multivariate logistic regression, the association was not present after adjustment for age, race, and GFR.
SLE was independently associated with higher resistin levels. Among subjects with SLE, higher resistin level correlated positively with renal dysfunction, inflammatory markers, and disease damage but not with insulin resistance or BMI. SLE cases with CAC had higher resistin levels than cases without CAC; however, this relationship was dependent on other established risk factors.
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ABSTRACT: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and lupus nephritis (LN) have strong concomitance with cardiovascular disease that cannot fully be explained by typical risk factors. We examined the possibility that serum or urine expression of adipokines may act as biomarkers for LN, since these proteins have previously been associated with cardiovascular disease as well as SLE. Antibody arrays were performed on serum and urine from lupus patients and matched controls using a cross-sectional study design. From the initial array-based screening data of 15 adipokines, adiponectin, leptin, and resistin were selected for validation by ELISA. Correlations were determined between adipokine expression levels and measures of disease activity or lupus nephritis. Expression of adiponectin and resistin were increased in both sera and urine from LN patients, while leptin was increased in LN patient sera, as compared to matched controls. Serum resistin, but not urine resistin, was correlated with measures of renal dysfunction in LN. Serum resistin expression may be useful as a marker of renal dysfunction in patients with LN though longitudinal studies are warranted. Further studies are necessary to determine if resistin has functional consequences in LN.Clinical & Experimental Immunology 10/2014; 179(3). DOI:10.1111/cei.12473 · 3.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Introduction In the last decades, autoimmune diseases have experienced a dramatic increase in Western countries. The involvement of environmental factors is strongly suspected to explain this rise. Particularly, over the same period, obesity has followed the same outbreak. Since the exciting discovery of the secretory properties of adipose tissue, the relationship between obesity and autoimmunity and the understanding of the underlying mechanisms have become of major interest. Indeed, the fat tissue has been found to produce a wide variety of “adipokines”, involved in the regulation of numerous physiological functions, including the immune response. Materials and methods By conducting a systematic literature review, we extracted 327 articles regarding clinical, experimental and pathophysiological data on the relationship between obesity, adipokines – namely leptin, adiponectin, resistin, visfatin – and various immune-mediated conditions, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), multiple sclerosis (MS), type-1 diabetes (T1D), psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis (PsA), and thyroid autoimmunity (TAI), especially Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT). Results The strongest levels of evidence support an increased risk of RA (OR = 1.2–3.4), MS (OR = 2), psoriasis and PsA (OR = 1.48–6.46) in obese subjects. A higher risk of IBD, T1D and TAI is also suggested. Moreover, obesity worsens the course of RA, SLE, IBD, psoriasis and PsA, and impairs the treatment response of RA, IBD, psoriasis and PsA. Extensive clinical data and experimental models demonstrate the involvement of adipokines in the pathogenesis of these autoimmune diseases. Conclusion Obesity appears to be a major environmental factor contributing to the onset and progression of autoimmune diseases.Autoimmunity Reviews 09/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.autrev.2014.07.001 · 7.10 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Lupus nephritis (LN) is one of the most severe complications of SLE. SLE patients have a greater risk of developing premature atherosclerosis. Resistin is an adipocyte-secreted peptide. It has pro-inflammatory and atherogenic effects.Aim of the workTo assess the serum levels of resistin in SLE patients and to evaluate it as a marker of nephritis and premature atherosclerosis.Patients and methodsThis study included 50 SLE nonpregnant female adult (mean age 23.1 ± 6.9 years) patients as well as 40 healthy volunteers matched in age and sex as a control group. Serum levels of resistin were assayed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). All patients and controls underwent laboratory investigations and carotid duplex. Disease activity was assessed using SLE Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI). Renal biopsy was performed for SLE patients with LN.ResultsThere was a highly statistically significant increase in mean serum resistin levels (14.1 ± 3.88 ng/ml) in patients versus the control group (6.44 ± 1.34 ng/ml) being more obvious in those with LN. Resistin had a significant positive correlation with markers of inflammation, SLEDAI and carotid intima media thickness (CIMT).Conclusion Serum level of resistin may serve as a marker of LN and atherosclerosis in SLE patients. A more aggressive control of the underlying inflammatory process along with the control of traditional risk factors (hypertension and cholesterol) may be beneficial in reducing the risk factors of renal and atherosclerotic involvement in SLE. Therapeutic approaches with drugs that target resistin might be useful in the treatment of SLE.10/2012; 34(4):137-146. DOI:10.1016/j.ejr.2012.06.001