Perilipin 5, a lipid droplet-associated protein, provides physical and metabolic linkage to mitochondria.
ABSTRACT Maintaining cellular lipid homeostasis is crucial to oxidative tissues, and it becomes compromised in obesity. Lipid droplets (LD) play a central role in lipid homeostasis by mediating fatty acid (FA) storage in the form of triglyceride, thereby lowering intracellular levels of lipids that mediate cellular lipotoxicity. LDs and mitochondria have interconnected functions, and anecdotal evidence suggests they physically interact. However, the mechanisms of interaction have not been identified. Perilipins are LD-scaffolding proteins and potential candidates to play a role in their interaction with mitochondria. We examined the contribution of LD perilipin composition to the physical and metabolic interactions between LD and mitochondria using multiple techniques: confocal imaging, electron microscopy (EM), and lipid storage and utilization measurements. Using neonatal cardiomyocytes, reconstituted cell culture models, and rodent heart tissues, we found that perilipin 5 (Plin5) recruits mitochondria to the LD surface through a C-terminal region. Compared with control cells, Plin5-expressing cells show decreased LD hydrolysis, decreased palmitate β-oxidation, and increased palmitate incorporation into triglycerides in basal conditions, whereas in stimulated conditions, LD hydrolysis inhibition is lifted and FA released for β-oxidation. These results suggest that Plin5 regulates oxidative LD hydrolysis and controls local FA flux to protect mitochondria against excessive exposure to FA during physiological stress.
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ABSTRACT: A maternal high fat diet (HFD) can have adverse effects on skeletal muscle development. Skeletal muscle PLIN proteins (PLIN2, 3 and 5) are thought to play critical roles in lipid metabolism, however effects of HFD on PLIN and lipases (HSL, ATGL, CGI-58) in mothers as well as their offspring have yet to be investigated. The primary objective of this study was to determine whether maternal HFD would influence skeletal muscle lipase and PLIN protein content in offspring at weaning (19d) and young adulthood (3mo). Female rats (28d old, n = 9/group) were fed control (CON, AIN93G, 7 % soybean oil) or HFD (AIN93G, 20 % lard) for 10 weeks prior to mating and throughout pregnancy and lactation. All offspring were weaned to CON [n = 18/group, 1 female and 1 male pup per litter were studied at weaning (19d) and 3mo of age]. There was no effect of sex for the main outcomes measured in plantaris, therefore male and female data was combined. Maternal HFD resulted in higher triacylglycerol content in pups at 3mo (p < 0.05), as well as in the dams (p = 0.015). Maternal HFD resulted in higher PLIN5 content in pups at weaning and 3mo (p = 0.05). PLIN2 and PLIN5 content decreased at 3mo versus weaning (p < 0.001). HFD dams had a higher PLIN3 content (p = 0.016). Diet had no effect on ATGL, CGI-58, or HSL content. In conclusion, exposure to a maternal HFD resulted in higher skeletal muscle lipid and PLIN5 content in plantaris of offspring through to young adulthood.Lipids 02/2015; 50(2). DOI:10.1007/s11745-014-3985-5 · 2.56 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Significance: The heart depends on continuous mitochondrial ATP supply and maintained redox balance to properly develop force, particularly under increased workload. During diabetes, however, myocardial energetic-redox balance is perturbed contributing to the systolic and diastolic dysfunction known as diabetic cardiomyopathy (DC). Critical issues: How these energetic and redox alterations intertwine to influence the DC progression is still poorly understood. Excessive bioavailability of both glucose and fatty acids (FAs) play a central role, leading among other effects to mitochondrial dysfunction. Yet, where and how this nutrient excess affects mitochondrial and cytoplasmic energetic/redox crossroads remains to be defined in more detail. Recent advances: We review how high glucose alters cellular redox balance and affects mitochondrial DNA. Next, we address how lipid excess, either stored in lipid droplets or utilized by mitochondria, affects performance in diabetic hearts by influencing cardiac energetic and redox assets. Finally, we examine how the reciprocal energetic/redox influence between mitochondrial and cytoplasmic compartments shapes myocardial mechanical activity during the course of DC, focusing especially on the glutathione and thioredoxin systems. Future directions: Protecting mitochondria from losing their ability to generate energy, and to control their own ROS emission is essential to prevent the onset and/or to slow down DC progression. We highlight mechanisms enforced by the diabetic heart to counteract glucose/FAs surplus-induced damage, such as lipid storage, enhanced mitochondria-lipid droplet interaction and up-regulation of key antioxidant enzymes. Learning more on the nature and location of mechanisms sheltering mitochondrial functions would certainly help to further optimize therapies for human DC.