Article

Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 is a key mediator of cisplatin-induced kidney inflammation and injury.

Laboratory of Physiological Studies, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.
Free Radical Biology and Medicine (Impact Factor: 5.27). 08/2011; 51(9):1774-88. DOI: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2011.08.006
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Cisplatin is a commonly used chemotherapeutic drug, the clinical use of which is limited by the development of dose-dependent nephrotoxicity. Enhanced inflammatory response, oxidative stress, and cell death have been implicated in the development of cisplatin-induced nephropathy; however, the precise mechanisms are elusive. Overactivation of the nuclear enzyme poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) by oxidative DNA damage under various pathological conditions promotes cell death and up-regulation of key proinflammatory pathways. In this study, using a well-established model of nephropathy, we have explored the role of PARP-1 in cisplatin-induced kidney injury. Genetic deletion or pharmacological inhibition of PARP-1 markedly attenuated the cisplatin-induced histopathological damage, impaired renal function (elevated serum BUN and creatinine levels), and enhanced inflammatory response (leukocyte infiltration; TNF-α, IL-1β, F4/80, adhesion molecules ICAM-1/VCAM-1 expression) and consequent oxidative/nitrative stress (4-HNE, 8-OHdG, and nitrotyrosine content; NOX2/NOX4 expression). PARP inhibition also facilitated the cisplatin-induced death of cancer cells. Thus, PARP activation plays an important role in cisplatin-induced kidney injury, and its pharmacological inhibition may represent a promising approach to preventing the cisplatin-induced nephropathy. This is particularly exciting because several PARP inhibitors alone or in combination with DNA-damaging anticancer agents show considerable promise in clinical trials for treatment of various malignancies (e.g., triple-negative breast cancer).

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