Formulation design for poorly water-soluble drugs based on biopharmaceutics classification system: basic approaches and practical applications.
ABSTRACT The poor oral bioavailability arising from poor aqueous solubility should make drug research and development more difficult. Various approaches have been developed with a focus on enhancement of the solubility, dissolution rate, and oral bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs. To complete development works within a limited amount of time, the establishment of a suitable formulation strategy should be a key consideration for the pharmaceutical development of poorly water-soluble drugs. In this article, viable formulation options are reviewed on the basis of the biopharmaceutics classification system of drug substances. The article describes the basic approaches for poorly water-soluble drugs, such as crystal modification, micronization, amorphization, self-emulsification, cyclodextrin complexation, and pH modification. Literature-based examples of the formulation options for poorly water-soluble compounds and their practical application to marketed products are also provided. Classification of drug candidates based on their biopharmaceutical properties can provide an indication of the difficulty of drug development works. A better understanding of the physicochemical and biopharmaceutical properties of drug substances and the limitations of each delivery option should lead to efficient formulation development for poorly water-soluble drugs.
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ABSTRACT: This study investigates the potential of poloxamers as solid dispersions (SDs) carriers in improving the dissolution rate of a poorly soluble drug, carbamazepine (CBZ). Solid dispersions were prepared with poloxamer 188 (P188) and poloxamer 407 (P407) by melting method in different drug:carrier ratios (1:1, 1:2 and 1:3). Prepared samples were characterized using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), hot-stage polarized light microscopy (HSM), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) to investigate drug physical state within the SDs matrix, possible polymorphic transitions and drug-polymer interactions. The interactions between CBZ molecules and polymeric chains were also evaluated using molecular dynamics simulation (MDS) technique. The most thermodynamically stable polymorphic form III of CBZ was present in all SDs, regardless of the type of poloxamer and drug-to-carrier ratio. The absence of drug-polymer interactions was observed by FT-IR analysis and additionally confirmed by MDS. Formation of persistent hydrogen bond between two CBZ molecules, observed by MDS indicate high tendency of CBZ molecules to aggregate and form crystalline phase within dispersion. P188 exhibit higher efficiency in increasing CBZ dissolution rate due to its more pronounced hydrophilic properties, while increasing poloxamers concentration resulted in decreasing drug release rate, as a consequence of their thermoreversible gelation.Pharmaceutical Development and Technology 01/2015; · 1.33 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To enhance the dissolution of poorly soluble mefenamic acid, self-emulsifying formulation (SEF), composing of oil, surfactant and co-surfactant, was formulated. Among the oils and surfactants studied, Imwitor® 742, Tween® 60, Cremophore® EL and Transcutol® HP were selected as they showed maximal solubility to mefenamic acid. The ternary phase diagram was constructed to find optimal concentration that provided the highest drug loading. The droplet size after dispersion and drug dissolution of selected formulations were investigated. The results showed that the formulation containing Imwitor® 742, Tween® 60 and Transcutol® HP (10:30:60) can encapsulate high amount of mefenamic acid. The dissolution study demonstrated that, in the medium containing surfactant, nearly 100% of mefenamic acid were dissolved from SEF within 5 minutes while 80% of drugs were dissolved from the commercial product in 45 minutes. In phosphate buffer (without surfactant), 80% of drug were dissolved from the developed SEF within 5 minutes while only about 13% of drug were dissolved in 45 minutes, from the commercial product. The results suggested that the SEF can enhance the dissolution of poorly soluble drug and has a potential to enhance drug absorption and improve bioavailability of drug.Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 12/2014;
- Dissolution Technologies 01/2014; 21(2):31-40. · 0.71 Impact Factor