Impact of MELD-based allocation on end-stage renal disease after liver transplantation.

Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.
American Journal of Transplantation (Impact Factor: 6.19). 08/2011; 11(11):2372-8. DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-6143.2011.03703.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The proportion of patients undergoing liver transplantation (LT), with concomitant renal dysfunction, markedly increased after allocation by the model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score was introduced. We examined the incidence of subsequent post-LT end-stage renal disease (ESRD) before and after the policy was implemented. Data on all adult deceased donor LT recipients between April 27, 1995 and December 31, 2008 (n = 59 242), from the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients, were linked with Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services' ESRD data. Cox regression was used to (i) compare pre-MELD and MELD eras with respect to post-LT ESRD incidence, (ii) determine the risk factors for post-LT ESRD and (iii) quantify the association between ESRD incidence and mortality. Crude rates of post-LT ESRD were 12.8 and 14.5 per 1000 patient-years in the pre-MELD and MELD eras, respectively. Covariate-adjusted post-LT ESRD risk was higher in the MELD era (hazard ratio [HR]= 1.15; p = 0.0049). African American race, hepatitis C, pre-LT diabetes, higher creatinine, lower albumin, lower bilirubin and sodium >141 mmol/L at LT were also significant predictors of post-LT ESRD. Post-LT ESRD was associated with higher post-LT mortality (HR = 3.32; p < 0.0001). The risk of post-LT ESRD, a strong predictor of post-LT mortality, is 15% higher in the MELD era. This study identified potentially modifiable risk factors of post-LT ESRD. Early intervention and modification of these risk factors may reduce the burden of post-LT ESRD.

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    ABSTRACT: To compare prevalence of chronic renal dysfunction (CRD) according to serum creatinine (sCr) vs estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) among maintenance liver transplant patients. The ICEBERG study was an observational, retrospective, cross-sectional, and multicenter study. Consecutive adult patients (aged 18 years or older) with liver transplantation (LT) performed at least two years previously were recruited. Multi-organ transplant recipients were excluded. Chronic renal dysfunction was defined according to sCr based criteria in routine clinical practice (≥ 2 mg/dL) and eGFR using MDRD-4 equation (< 60 mL/min per 1.73 m(2)). Agreement between sCr definition and eGFR assessment was evaluated using the Kappa index. Cox regression analysis was applied to identify predictive factors for developing CRD after LT. A total of 402 patients were analyzed (71.6% males). Mean ± SD age at transplant was 52.4 ± 9.8 years. Alcoholic cirrhosis without hepatocellular carcinoma was the most common reason for LT (32.8%). Mean time since LT was 6.9 ± 3.9 years. Based on sCr assessment, 35.3% of patients (95%CI: 30.6-40.0) had CRD; 50.2% (95%CI: 45.3-55.1) according to eGFR. In 32.2% of cases, sCr assessment had underestimated CRD. Multivariate analysis showed the following factors associated with developing CRD: eGFR < 60 mL/min per 1.73 m(2) at three months post-transplant [hazard ratio (HR) = 4.76; 95%CI: 2.78-8.33; P < 0.0001]; calcineurin inhibitor use (HR = 2.31; 95%CI: 1.05-5.07; P = 0.0371); male gender (HR = 1.98; 95%CI: 1.09-3.60; P = 0.0260); and ≥ 10 years post-transplantation (HR = 1.95; 95%CI: 1.08-3.54; P = 0.0279). Seven years after LT, CRD affected half our patients, which was underestimated by sCr. An eGFR < 60 mL/min per 1.73 m(2) three months post-LT was predictive of subsequent CRD.
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    ABSTRACT: Model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score, initially developed to predict survival following transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt was subsequently found to be accurate predictor of mortality amongst patents with end-stage liver disease. Since 2002, MELD score using 3 objective variables (serum bilirubin, serum creatinine, and institutional normalized ratio) has been used worldwide for listing and transplanting patients with end-stage liver disease allowing transplanting sicker patients first irrespective of the wait time on the list. MELD score has also been shown to be accurate predictor of survival amongst patients with alcoholic hepatitis, following variceal hemorrhage, infections in cirrhosis, after surgery in patients with cirrhosis including liver resection, trauma, and hepatorenal syndrome (HRS). Although, MELD score is closest to the ideal score, there are some limitations including its inaccuracy in predicting survival in 15-20% cases. Over the last decade, many efforts have been made to further improve and refine MELD score. Until, a better score is developed, liver allocation would continue based on the currently used MELD score.
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    Clinical Transplantation 10/2014; 29(1). DOI:10.1111/ctr.12479

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