To describe the survival of patients with primary small cell carcinoma (SCC) of the prostate and assess prognostic factors based on a large population sample.
A total of 241 cases of SCC of the prostate were reported to the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) registries from 1973 to 2003 of which 191 cases were included in our study. We used the Kaplan-Meier method for estimating survival, and Cox proportional hazard regression modelling to evaluate prognostic variables.
The overall age-adjusted incidence rate was 0.278 per 1,000,000 (95% confidence interval, 0.239-0.323). In all, 60.5% presented as metastatic disease compared with 39.5% who presented as local/regional disease (P= 0.012). The 12, 24, 36, 48 and 60 months observed survival rates were 47.9%, 27.5%, 19%, 17% and 14.3% respectively. On univariate analyses, age <60, concomitant low-grade prostatic adenocarcinoma, absence of metastasis, prostatectomy and radiation therapy were favourable prognostic factors. In multivariate regression modelling, age, pathology and stage were strong predictors of survival.
Using the SEER database, we present the largest study describing the epidemiology of primary SCC of the prostate. We found age, concomitant low-grade prostatic adenocarcinoma, and stage of the disease to be the strongest predictors of survival for patients with prostatic SCC. Future studies evaluating a broader range of clinical and molecular markers are needed to refine the prognostic model of this relatively rare disease.
"Unlike the scattered NE cells in normal or benign prostate, the NE tumor cells in SCPC are highly proliferative, metastatic, and resistant to most conventional therapies. As a result, SCPC is invariably fatal with most patients dying within 2 years of diagnosis despite very aggressive chemotherapeutic regimens (16–18). To date, the origin of these tumors remains uncertain. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In normal prostate, neuroendocrine (NE) cells are rare and interspersed among the epithelium. These cells are believed to provide trophic signals to epithelial cell populations through the secretion of an abundance of neuropeptides that can diffuse to influence surrounding cells. In the setting of prostate cancer (PC), NE cells can also stimulate surrounding prostate adenocarcinoma cell growth, but in some cases adenocarcinoma cells themselves acquire NE characteristics. This epithelial plasticity is associated with decreased androgen receptor (AR) signaling and the accumulation of neuronal and stem cell characteristics. Transformation to an NE phenotype is one proposed mechanism of resistance to contemporary AR-targeted treatments, is associated with poor prognosis, and thought to represent up to 25% of lethal PCs. Importantly, the advent of high-throughput technologies has started to provide clues for understanding the complex molecular profiles of tumors exhibiting NE differentiation. Here, we discuss these recent advances, the multifaceted manner by which an NE-like state may arise during the different stages of disease progression, and the potential benefit of this knowledge for the management of patients with advanced PC.
Frontiers in Oncology 03/2014; 4:60. DOI:10.3389/fonc.2014.00060
"However, compared with their younger counterparts, older patients with SCCP had a two-fold higher risk of dying from their prostate cancer. Our study is consistent with the previous finding that older age is an independently poor prognostic factor in patients with SCCP.35 Further research is needed to clarify whether this age-related poor outcome is simply the consequence of comorbid conditions, suboptimal chemotherapy, treatment-related side effects with advancing age, or the results of age-specific differences in tumor biology and dysregulation of the oncogenic pathway.36,37 "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effects of age on clinical presentation, treatment, and outcomes for patients with small-cell carcinoma of the prostate (SCCP) are unclear.
A retrospective review was performed on 259 patients who were identified with SCCP in the national Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) registry from January 1973 to December 2004. The patients were categorized into two groups according to age at diagnosis, ie, younger than 75 years (n = 158, 61%) or 75 years and older (n = 101, 39%). Patient and treatment characteristics and cancer-specific survival were compared between the groups. Multivariate analysis was performed to identify independent prognostic factors associated with cancer-specific survival.
The median age of the patients was 72 (30-95) years. There was no significant difference in terms of tumor characteristics, concomitant adenocarcinoma grade, SEER stage, and treatment (including prostatectomy and radiation therapy) received between the groups. Median cancer-specific survival was 19 months (95% confidence interval 13-25). By multivariate Cox proportional hazard modeling, older age group (hazard ratio [HR] 1.95; P = 0.001), concomitant high-grade adenocarcinoma (HR 7.13; P = 0.007), and not having prostatectomy (HR 3.77; P = 0.005) were found to be significant independent predictors of poor cancer-specific survival.
Older patients with SCCP had increased risk of poor cancer-specific survival. Whether this age-related poor outcome can be attributed to more aggressive tumor biology in older patients, or is simply a refection of age-related poor performance status and suboptimal chemotherapy needs further investigation.
"The prognosis of PSCNC is extremely poor (9). With regard to the prognosis of primary PSCNC, Deorah et al(10) reported that the median survival periods for patients with the local/regional disease (a primary tumor and regional lymph node metastasis only) and metastatic disease were 15 and 7 months, respectively, and the 12, 24, 36, 48 and 60-month survival rates were 47.9, 27.5, 19, 17 and 14.3%, respectively. Furthermore, mixed adenocarcinoma-type patients live 3–5 months longer than patients with pure small cell carcinoma (7,8). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Treating extended prostatic small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (PSCNC) is extremely difficult and no standard treatment has yet been established. We experienced a case of advanced mixed-type PSCNC in which the patient achieved long-term survival and local control following combined therapy. Locally advanced PSCNC causing lower urinary obstruction was detected during androgen-ablation therapy for stage D2 mixed adenocarcinoma PSCNC. The patient was treated with intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy using a reservoir system and external-beam radiotherapy (EBRT) to the whole pelvis and local tumor. After chemoradiotherapy, the patient's lower urinary obstruction was reduced and did not return during the remaining 40 months of the patient's life. The patient survived for 70 months following the start of the androgen-ablation therapy. The present study reports a useful treatment for advanced mixed-type PSCNC, androgen-ablation therapy and chemoradiotherapy. The present results also suggest that the prognostic factors for advanced mixed-type PSCNC are the sensitivity of the conventional adenocarcinoma to androgen-ablation therapy, degree of metastasis and extent of the small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma component.
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