Antibiotic effects on bacterial profile in osteonecrosis of the jaw

Department of Chemical and Biological Sciences, Polytechnic Institute of New York University, USA.
Oral Diseases (Impact Factor: 2.43). 08/2011; 18(1):85-95. DOI: 10.1111/j.1601-0825.2011.01848.x
Source: PubMed


Oral infection is considered to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ), and antibiotic therapy has become a mainstay of BRONJ therapy. This study was aimed to investigate the effect of antibiotics on bacterial diversity in BRONJ tissues.
The bacterial profile from soft tissues associated with the BRONJ lesion was determined using 16S rRNA-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and sequencing. Twenty BRONJ subjects classified as stage 0-2 were enrolled in this study, and patient groups were divided into an antibiotic cohort (n=10) treated with systemic antibiotic and a non-antibiotic cohort (n=10) with no prior antibiotic therapy.
The DGGE fingerprints indicated no significant differences in bacterial diversity of BRONJ tissue samples. Patients on antibiotics had higher relative abundance of phylum Firmicutes with bacterial species, Streptococcus intermedius, Lactobacillus gasseri, Mogibacterium timidum, and Solobacterium moorei, whereas patients without antibiotics had greater amounts of Parvimonas micra and Streptococcus anginosus. Thirty percent of bacterial populations were uncultured (yet-to be cultured) phylotypes.
This study using limited sample size indicated that oral antibiotic therapy may have a limited efficacy on the bacterial population associated with BRONJ lesions.

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    • "Biofilm formation encouraged lysogenic interactions between viruses and microbial hosts and may contribute to pathogenicity.[26] In 2012 Ji et al. suggested that oral infection and inflammation plays a crucial role in the development of BPs induced ONJ.[25] While Sedghizadeh et al. reported BPs induced ONJ was most commonly seen in those patients who received invasive dental procedures because oral microbes gain access to the exposed jaw bone and play an important role in the etiopathogenesis of this condition. "
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    ABSTRACT: Bisphosphonates (BPs) is widely used as the first line of treatment choice for osteoporosis, Paget's disease of bone, bone cancer metastasis and hypercalcemia of malignancy. BPs induced osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) is a relatively rare but severe clinical condition cited in English literature since 2003 while exact pathogenesis of BPs induced ONJ is not known until today, but numerous hypotheses were described in recent literature that promote and interlinked the development of BPs induced ONJ. These hypotheses indicate multifactorial nature of its development and factors responsible for that are; long term administration of intravenous nitrogen containing BPs in cancer patients, biological behavior of jaw, antiangiogenic property of BPs and by soft-tissue toxicity etc., All these factors are compounded by the presence of infection that are responsible for lower the pH of the oral cavity, other drugs like administration of corticosteroid, pathologies that cause hypo-calcification of bone, compromised immune response that alters normal healing such as renal transplantation followed by long term oral BPs therapy or chronic diabetic patients receiving BPs therapy and any dentoalveolar trauma. All literature in this review article is search from PubMed, Med-know and Google search engines.
    North American Journal of Medical Sciences 04/2013; 5(4):260-5. DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.110429
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    • "Tissue specimens were pretreated as mentioned earlier by Ji et al. [44]. Briefly, the tissues were suspended in 500 μL of sterile phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), vortexed for 30 seconds and sonicated for 5 and 10 seconds respectively. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Bacterial infections have been linked to malignancies due to their ability to induce chronic inflammation. We investigated the association of oral bacteria in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC/tumor) tissues and compared with adjacent non-tumor mucosa sampled 5 cm distant from the same patient (n = 10). By using culture-independent 16S rRNA approaches, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and cloning and sequencing, we assessed the total bacterial diversity in these clinical samples. Results DGGE fingerprints showed variations in the band intensity profiles within non-tumor and tumor tissues of the same patient and among the two groups. The clonal analysis indicated that from a total of 1200 sequences characterized, 80 bacterial species/phylotypes were detected representing six phyla, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Fusobacteria, Actinobacteria and uncultivated TM7 in non-tumor and tumor libraries. In combined library, 12 classes, 16 order, 26 families and 40 genera were observed. Bacterial species, Streptococcus sp. oral taxon 058, Peptostreptococcus stomatis, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus gordonii, Gemella haemolysans, Gemella morbillorum, Johnsonella ignava and Streptococcus parasanguinis I were highly associated with tumor site where as Granulicatella adiacens was prevalent at non-tumor site. Streptococcus intermedius was present in 70% of both non-tumor and tumor sites. Conclusions The underlying changes in the bacterial diversity in the oral mucosal tissues from non-tumor and tumor sites of OSCC subjects indicated a shift in bacterial colonization. These most prevalent or unique bacterial species/phylotypes present in tumor tissues may be associated with OSCC and needs to be further investigated with a larger sample size.
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    • "PCR-based DGGE assay A set of universal bacterial 16S rDNA primers, forward primer bac1 (prbac1, 5¢-ACTACGTGCCAGCAGCC- 3¢) and reverse primer bac2 (prbac2, 5¢-GGACTACCA- GGGTATCTACTAATCC-3¢), were used to generate an approximately 300-bp amplicon (Rupf et al, 1999) (Ji et al, 2012). A 40-nucleotide GC-clamp (CGCCCGGG GCGCGCCCCGGGCGGGGCGGGGGCACGGGG- GG) was added to the 5¢ end of prbac1 (Sheffield et al, 1989). "
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    ABSTRACT: Infection has been hypothesized as a contributing factor to bisphosphonate (BP)-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ). The objective of this study was to determine the bacterial colonization of jawbone and identify the bacterial phylotypes associated with BRONJ. Culture-independent 16S rRNA gene-based molecular techniques were used to determine and compare the total bacterial diversity in bone samples collected from 12 patients with cancer (six, BRONJ with history of BP; six, controls without BRONJ, no history of BP but have infection). Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profile and Dice coefficient displayed a statistically significant clustering of profiles, indicating different bacterial population in BRONJ subjects and control. The top three genera ranked among the BRONJ group were Streptococcus (29%), Eubacterium (9%), and Pseudoramibacter (8%), while in the control group were Parvimonas (17%), Streptococcus (15%), and Fusobacterium (15%). H&E sections of BRONJ bone revealed layers of bacteria along the surfaces and often are packed into the scalloped edges of the bone. This study using limited sample size indicated that the jawbone associated with BRONJ was heavily colonized by specific oral bacteria and there were apparent differences between the microbiota of BRONJ and controls.
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