Characterization of bla(CMY)-encoding plasmids among Salmonella isolated in the United States in 2007.

Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30329, USA.
Foodborne Pathogens and Disease (Impact Factor: 2.09). 09/2011; 8(12):1289-94. DOI: 10.1089/fpd.2011.0944
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Salmonella enterica is one of the most common bacterial causes of foodborne illness, and nontyphoidal Salmonella is estimated to cause ∼1.2 million illnesses in the United States each year. Plasmids are mobile genetic elements that play a critical role in the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance determinants. AmpC-type CMY β-lactamases (bla(CMY)) confer resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins and β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitor combinations and are commonly plasmid-encoded. A variety of plasmids have been shown to encode CMY β-lactamases and certain plasmids may be associated with particular Salmonella serotypes or environmental sources. In this study, we characterized bla(CMY) β-lactamase-encoding plasmids among Salmonella isolates. Isolates of Salmonella from specimens collected from humans in 2007 were submitted to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System laboratory for susceptibility testing. Three percent (65/2161) of Salmonella isolates displayed resistance to ceftriaxone (minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC] ≥4 mg/L) and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (MIC ≥32 mg/L), a combination associated with the presence of a bla(CMY) mechanism of resistance. Sixty-four (98.5%) isolates were polymerase chain reaction-positive for bla(CMY) genes. Transformation and conjugation studies showed that 95% (61/64) of the bla(CMY) genes were plasmid-encoded. Most of the bla(CMY)-positive isolates were serotype Typhimurium, Newport, Heidelberg, and Agona. Forty-three plasmids were replicon type IncA/C, 15 IncI1, 2 contained multiple replicon loci, and 1 was untypeable. IncI1 plasmids conferred only the bla(CMY)-associated resistance phenotype, whereas IncA/C plasmids conferred additional multi-drug resistance (MDR) phenotypes to drugs such as chloramphenicol, sulfisoxazole, and tetracycline. Most of the IncI1 plasmids (12/15) were sequence type 12 by plasmid multi-locus sequence typing. CMY β-lactamase-encoding plasmids among human isolates of Salmonella in the United States tended to be large MDR IncA/C plasmids or single resistance determinant IncI1 plasmids. In general, IncI1 plasmids were identified among serotypes commonly associated with poultry, whereas IncA/C plasmids were more likely to be identified among cattle/beef-associated serotypes.

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    • "These vary greatly with the location or host source of the isolates and often reflect the environment to which they are exposed (Carattoli, 2008, 2009). In Salmonella isolated from U.S. farm animals, the most prevalent genetic elements identified to date are plasmids and integrons (White et al., 2003; Lindsey et al., 2009, 2011a; Folster et al., 2011; Frye et al., 2011; Glenn et al., 2011, 2012; Johnson et al., 2011b). Plasmids are categorized by incompatibility groups, or Inc types, as only one plasmid of the same type can be stably maintained during cell division; thus two plasmids of the same Inc type are " incompatible. "
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    ABSTRACT: The prevalence of antimicrobial resistance (AR) in bacteria isolated from U.S. food animals has increased over the last several decades as have concerns of AR foodborne zoonotic human infections. Resistance mechanisms identified in U.S. animal isolates of Salmonella enterica included resistance to aminoglycosides (e.g., alleles of aacC, aadA, aadB, ant, aphA, and StrAB), β-lactams (e.g., bla CMY-2, TEM-1, PSE-1), chloramphenicol (e.g., floR, cmlA, cat1, cat2), folate pathway inhibitors (e.g., alleles of sul and dfr), and tetracycline [e.g., alleles of tet(A), (B), (C), (D), (G), and tetR]. In the U.S., multi-drug resistance (MDR) mechanisms in Salmonella animal isolates were associated with integrons, or mobile genetic elements (MGEs) such as IncA/C plasmids which can be transferred among bacteria. It is thought that AR Salmonella originates in food animals and is transmitted through food to humans. However, some AR Salmonella isolated from humans in the U.S. have different AR elements than those isolated from food animals, suggesting a different etiology for some AR human infections. The AR mechanisms identified in isolates from outside the U.S. are also predominantly different. For example the extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) are found in human and animal isolates globally; however, in the U.S., ESBLs thus far have only been found in human and not food animal isolates. Commensal bacteria in animals including Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. may be reservoirs for AR mechanisms. Many of the AR genes and MGEs found in E. coli isolated from U.S. animals are similar to those found in Salmonella. Enterococcus spp. isolated from animals frequently carry MGEs with AR genes, including resistances to aminoglycosides (e.g., alleles of aac, ant, and aph), macrolides [e.g., erm(A), erm(B), and msrC], and tetracyclines [e.g., tet(K), (L), (M), (O), (S)]. Continuing investigations are required to help understand and mitigate the impact of AR bacteria on human and animal health.
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    ABSTRACT: Salmonella enterica is one of the most common causes of foodborne illness in the United States. Although salmonellosis is usually self-limiting, severe infections typically require antimicrobial treatment, and ceftriaxone, an extended-spectrum cephalosporin (ESC), is commonly used in both adults and children. Surveillance conducted by the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS) has shown a recent increase in ESC resistance among Salmonella Heidelberg isolated from food animals at slaughter, retail meat, and humans. ESC resistance among Salmonella in the United States is usually mediated by a plasmid-encoded bla(CMY) β-lactamase. In 2009, we identified 47 ESC-resistant bla(CMY)-positive Heidelberg isolates from humans (n=18), food animals at slaughter (n=16), and retail meats (n=13) associated with a spike in the prevalence of this serovar. Almost 90% (26/29) of the animal and meat isolates were isolated from chicken carcasses or retail chicken meat. We screened NARMS isolates for the presence of bla(CMY), determined whether the gene was plasmid-encoded, examined pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns to assess the genetic diversities of the isolates, and categorized the bla(CMY) plasmids by plasmid incompatibility groups and plasmid multi-locus sequence typing (pMLST). All 47 bla(CMY) genes were found to be plasmid encoded. Incompatibility/replicon typing demonstrated that 41 were IncI1 plasmids, 40 of which only conferred bla(CMY)-associated resistance. Six were IncA/C plasmids that carried additional resistance genes. pMLST of the IncI1-bla(CMY) plasmids showed that 27 (65.8%) were sequence type (ST) 12, the most common ST among bla(CMY)-IncI1 plasmids from Heidelberg isolated from humans. Ten plasmids had a new ST profile, ST66, a type very similar to ST12. This work showed that the 2009 increase in ESC resistance among Salmonella Heidelberg was caused mainly by the dissemination of bla(CMY) on IncI1 and IncA/C plasmids in a variety of genetic backgrounds, and is likely not the result of clonal expansion.
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