Characterization of bla(CMY)-encoding plasmids among Salmonella isolated in the United States in 2007.

Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30329, USA.
Foodborne Pathogens and Disease (Impact Factor: 2.09). 09/2011; 8(12):1289-94. DOI: 10.1089/fpd.2011.0944
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Salmonella enterica is one of the most common bacterial causes of foodborne illness, and nontyphoidal Salmonella is estimated to cause ∼1.2 million illnesses in the United States each year. Plasmids are mobile genetic elements that play a critical role in the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance determinants. AmpC-type CMY β-lactamases (bla(CMY)) confer resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins and β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitor combinations and are commonly plasmid-encoded. A variety of plasmids have been shown to encode CMY β-lactamases and certain plasmids may be associated with particular Salmonella serotypes or environmental sources. In this study, we characterized bla(CMY) β-lactamase-encoding plasmids among Salmonella isolates. Isolates of Salmonella from specimens collected from humans in 2007 were submitted to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System laboratory for susceptibility testing. Three percent (65/2161) of Salmonella isolates displayed resistance to ceftriaxone (minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC] ≥4 mg/L) and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (MIC ≥32 mg/L), a combination associated with the presence of a bla(CMY) mechanism of resistance. Sixty-four (98.5%) isolates were polymerase chain reaction-positive for bla(CMY) genes. Transformation and conjugation studies showed that 95% (61/64) of the bla(CMY) genes were plasmid-encoded. Most of the bla(CMY)-positive isolates were serotype Typhimurium, Newport, Heidelberg, and Agona. Forty-three plasmids were replicon type IncA/C, 15 IncI1, 2 contained multiple replicon loci, and 1 was untypeable. IncI1 plasmids conferred only the bla(CMY)-associated resistance phenotype, whereas IncA/C plasmids conferred additional multi-drug resistance (MDR) phenotypes to drugs such as chloramphenicol, sulfisoxazole, and tetracycline. Most of the IncI1 plasmids (12/15) were sequence type 12 by plasmid multi-locus sequence typing. CMY β-lactamase-encoding plasmids among human isolates of Salmonella in the United States tended to be large MDR IncA/C plasmids or single resistance determinant IncI1 plasmids. In general, IncI1 plasmids were identified among serotypes commonly associated with poultry, whereas IncA/C plasmids were more likely to be identified among cattle/beef-associated serotypes.

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    ABSTRACT: Escherichia coli O157 is a major cause of food-borne illness. Plasmids are genetic elements that mobilise antimicrobial resistance determinants, including blaCMY β-lactamases that confer resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESCs). ESCs are important for treating a variety of infections. IncA/C plasmids are found among diverse sources, including cattle, the principal source of E. coli O157 infections in humans. IncI1 plasmids are common among E. coli and Salmonella from poultry and other avian sources. To broaden our understanding of the reservoirs of blaCMY, the types of plasmids carrying blaCMY among E. coli O157 were determined. From 1996 to 2009, 3742 E. coli O157 isolates were tested. Eleven isolates (0.29%) were ceftriaxone-resistant and had a blaCMY-2-containing plasmid. All four isolates submitted before 2001 as well as a single 2001 isolate had blaCMY encoded on IncA/C plasmids, whilst all five isolates submitted after 2001 and a single 2001 isolate had blaCMY carried on IncI1 plasmids. The IncI1 plasmids were ST2, ST20 and ST23. We conclude that cephalosporin resistance among E. coli O157:H7 is due to plasmid-encoded blaCMY genes and that plasmid types appear to have shifted from IncA/C to IncI1. This shift suggests either a change in plasmid type among animal reservoirs or that the organism has expanded into avian reservoirs. More analysis of human, retail meat and food animal isolates is necessary to broaden our understanding of the antimicrobial resistance determinants of ESC resistance among E. coli O157.
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    ABSTRACT: Dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes occurs mostly by conjugation, which mediates DNA transfer between cells in direct contact. Conjugative plasmids of the IncA/C incompatibility group have become a substantial threat due to their broad host-range, the extended spectrum of antimicrobial resistance they confer, their prevalence in enteric bacteria and their very efficient spread by conjugation. However, their biology remains largely unexplored. Using the IncA/C conjugative plasmid pVCR94ΔX as a prototype, we have investigated the regulatory circuitry that governs IncA/C plasmids dissemination and found that the transcriptional activator complex AcaCD is essential for the expression of plasmid transfer genes. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with exonuclease digestion (ChIP-exo) and RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) approaches, we have identified the sequences recognized by AcaCD and characterized the AcaCD regulon. Data mining using the DNA motif recognized by AcaCD revealed potential AcaCD-binding sites upstream of genes involved in the intracellular mobility functions (recombination directionality factor and mobilization genes) in two widespread classes of genomic islands (GIs) phylogenetically unrelated to IncA/C plasmids. The first class, SGI1, confers and propagates multidrug resistance in Salmonella enterica and Proteus mirabilis, whereas MGIVmi1 in Vibrio mimicus belongs to a previously uncharacterized class of GIs. We have demonstrated that through expression of AcaCD, IncA/C plasmids specifically trigger the excision and mobilization of the GIs at high frequencies. This study provides new evidence of the considerable impact of IncA/C plasmids on bacterial genome plasticity through their own mobility and the mobilization of genomic islands.
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    ABSTRACT: Abstracts Background Salmonella resistant to third-generation cephalosporin has been isolated from an increasing number of animals worldwide. The purpose of this study was to examine ESBL (extended-spectrum β-lactamases)-producing and PABL (plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamases)-producing Salmonella isolates from pigs in South Korea. Results Salmonella Typhimurium KVCC-BA1300259 was resistant to ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, cephalothin, chloramphenicol, florfenicol, cefoxithin, gentamicin, nalidixic acid, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, and ceftiofur. The results of a double-disk synergy test and PCR confirmed that the isolate produced CMY-2 (PABL). Analysis of plasmid incompatibility (Inc) groups revealed the presence of IncA/C and IncFIB, indicating antimicrobial resistance. This study is the first to identify S. Typhimurium isolates harboring CMY-2 in pigs in South Korea. Conclusions The presence of CMY-2 in pigs poses a significant threat of possible horizontal spread between animals and humans.
    BMC Research Notes 06/2014; 7(1):329. DOI:10.1186/1756-0500-7-329