Characterization of bla(CMY)-encoding plasmids among Salmonella isolated in the United States in 2007.
ABSTRACT Salmonella enterica is one of the most common bacterial causes of foodborne illness, and nontyphoidal Salmonella is estimated to cause ∼1.2 million illnesses in the United States each year. Plasmids are mobile genetic elements that play a critical role in the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance determinants. AmpC-type CMY β-lactamases (bla(CMY)) confer resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins and β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitor combinations and are commonly plasmid-encoded. A variety of plasmids have been shown to encode CMY β-lactamases and certain plasmids may be associated with particular Salmonella serotypes or environmental sources. In this study, we characterized bla(CMY) β-lactamase-encoding plasmids among Salmonella isolates. Isolates of Salmonella from specimens collected from humans in 2007 were submitted to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System laboratory for susceptibility testing. Three percent (65/2161) of Salmonella isolates displayed resistance to ceftriaxone (minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC] ≥4 mg/L) and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (MIC ≥32 mg/L), a combination associated with the presence of a bla(CMY) mechanism of resistance. Sixty-four (98.5%) isolates were polymerase chain reaction-positive for bla(CMY) genes. Transformation and conjugation studies showed that 95% (61/64) of the bla(CMY) genes were plasmid-encoded. Most of the bla(CMY)-positive isolates were serotype Typhimurium, Newport, Heidelberg, and Agona. Forty-three plasmids were replicon type IncA/C, 15 IncI1, 2 contained multiple replicon loci, and 1 was untypeable. IncI1 plasmids conferred only the bla(CMY)-associated resistance phenotype, whereas IncA/C plasmids conferred additional multi-drug resistance (MDR) phenotypes to drugs such as chloramphenicol, sulfisoxazole, and tetracycline. Most of the IncI1 plasmids (12/15) were sequence type 12 by plasmid multi-locus sequence typing. CMY β-lactamase-encoding plasmids among human isolates of Salmonella in the United States tended to be large MDR IncA/C plasmids or single resistance determinant IncI1 plasmids. In general, IncI1 plasmids were identified among serotypes commonly associated with poultry, whereas IncA/C plasmids were more likely to be identified among cattle/beef-associated serotypes.
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ABSTRACT: A blaCMY-2 -containing conjugative IncF plasmid denoted as pEQ011, previously identified in a multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli isolate of equine origin, was characterized. The plasmid consisted of 85 507 bp, with 118 predicted open reading frames. This is the first known report demonstrating the association of a blaCMY-2 gene with an IncF incompatibility-type plasmid backbone. A novel genetic arrangement was identified wherein the blaCMY-2 resistance gene was proximally flanked by IS1294 along with a partial blc gene located distally and within a yacABC operon.FEMS Microbiology Letters 12/2013; · 2.05 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To characterize the genetic determinants responsible for extended-spectrum cephalosporin (ESC) resistance of d-tartrate-positive Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Paratyphi B (serovar Paratyphi B dT+) strains that have emerged in poultry and humans in Belgium during 2008-10. The ESC resistance genes among non-redundant serovar Paratyphi B dT+ strains were determined using PCR and sequencing. ESC phenotypes were horizontally transferred by conjugation. Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)- or AmpC-carrying plasmids were typed by PCR-based replicon typing, plasmid multilocus sequence typing and restriction fragment length polymorphism. The genetic relationship of ESC-resistant strains was assessed by XbaI PFGE and multilocus sequence typing. Since 2008, the proportion of serovar Paratyphi B dT+ strains from broiler origin has increased significantly to reach 36.5% in 2010. Among 95 non-duplicate serovar Paratyphi B dT+ strains, 35% were resistant to ESCs. At the same time, a few ESC-resistant serovar Paratyphi B dT+ strains from humans were also detected in Belgium. The most prevalent ESBL gene, blaCTX-M-1, and the AmpC cephalosporinase gene blaCMY-2 were identified on various conjugative IncI1 plasmids of different sequence types and with different additional non-β-lactam phenotypes. Interestingly, the blaCTX-M-2 gene was located on large multireplicon IncHI2/P plasmids. In addition, highly ESC-resistant strains contained both the ESBL CTX-M-2 and the AmpC CMY-2 encoded by the IncHI2/P and IncI1 plasmids, respectively. All ESC-resistant serovar Paratyphi B dT+ strains belonged to sequence type 28 and showed the common PFGE pattern X8, as well as the chromosomal class 2 integron cassette array dfrA1-sat2-aadA1 previously described in the European poultry-associated serovar Paratyphi B dT+ clonal population. This study showed that the clonal population of multidrug-resistant serovar Paratyphi B dT+, persisting in broilers in Belgium for the last decade, recently acquired various plasmid-borne ESC resistance determinants, constituting a major concern for public health. Further surveillance programmes and research are an absolute necessity to understand their epidemiology and to propose interventions to limit the spread of ESC- and multidrug-resistant Salmonella spp.Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 12/2013; · 5.34 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Salmonella is an important cause of foodborne illness; however, identifying the source of these infections can be difficult. This is especially true for Salmonella serotype Typhimurium, which is found in diverse agricultural niches. Extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESC) are one of the primary treatment choices for complicated Salmonella infections. In Salmonella, ESC resistance in the United States is mainly mediated by blaCMY genes carried on various plasmids. In this study, we examined whether the characterization of blaCMY plasmids, along with additional information, can help us identify potential sources of infection by Salmonella, and used serotype Typhimurium as a model. In the United States, monitoring of retail meat, food animals, and ill persons for antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella is conducted by the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System. In 2008, 70 isolates (70/581; 12.0%) (34 isolates from retail meat, 23 food animal, and 13 human) were resistant to ceftriaxone and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. All were polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-positive for blaCMY and 59/70 (84.3%) of these genes were plasmid encoded. PCR-based replicon typing identified 42/59 (71.2%) IncI1-blaCMY plasmids and 17/59 (28.8%) IncA/C-blaCMY plasmids. Isolates from chickens or chicken products with blaCMY plasmids primarily had IncI1-blaCMY plasmids (37/40; 92.5%), while all isolates from cattle had IncA/C-blaCMY plasmids. Isolates from humans had either IncA/C- blaCMY (n=8/12; [66.7%]) or IncI1- blaCMY (n=4/12 [33.3%]) plasmids. All of the IncI1-blaCMY plasmids were ST12 or were closely related to ST12. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns (AST) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns of the isolates were also compared and differences were identified between isolate sources. When the source of a Typhimurium outbreak or sporadic illness is unknown, characterizing the outbreak isolate's blaCMY plasmids, AST, and PFGE patterns may help identify it.Foodborne Pathogens and Disease 01/2014; · 2.28 Impact Factor