Six months after the World Trade Center (WTC) attacks of September 11, 2001 (9/11), a representative sample of New York City students (N = 8,236) in Grades 4 through 12 reported their use of TV, Web, and combined radio and print media regarding the WTC attack. Demographic factors, WTC exposure, other exposure to trauma, and probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) were used to predict intensive use of the 3 types of media. Intensive use was associated with direct exposure to the WTC attack (with the exception of Web use) and to having reported symptoms of PTSD. Stratified analyses indicated that the association between probable PTSD and intensive media use was more consistently present among those who had no direct or familial exposure to the WTC attack. As well, media, particularly TV, was intensively used by children after the WTC attack. Variations existed in the factors associated with intensive media use, which should be considered when planning postdisaster media coverage and advising families.
"Regression models included the tornado interpersonal communication questions as the dependent variables, and sociodemographics, tornado experience, and PTS symptoms were included as independent variables. Stratified analyses of the association between PTS symptoms and dependent variables were also conducted in order to examine differences for participants who did or did not have direct experience with the tornado and who did or did not know someone who was killed in the tornado (Duarte et al., 2011). Table 1 presents results of multiple regression models that include sociodemographic, tornado experience, and PTS symptom variables as predictors of tornado interpersonal communication. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In 2011 a deadly tornado struck Joplin, Missouri, killing 158 people. Six months after this disaster, we conducted a random digit dialing telephone survey of Joplin adult residents (N = 380) to examine the relationships between disaster experience, posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms, and disaster interpersonal communication. We found that tornado experience and PTS symptoms resulting from the disaster were related to more interpersonal communication about the event. Considering the nature of disaster experience in understanding the relationships between PTS symptoms and disaster interpersonal communication proved important, as PTS symptoms were related to more talk with neighbors for those directly affected by the storm and more attendance at community meetings for those not directly affected. For those living in Joplin who knew someone who died, more PTS symptoms were related to more talk with friends, family, and neighbors and more attendance at community meetings relative to those who did not know someone.
Journal of Loss and Trauma 11/2013; 20(3):1-12. DOI:10.1080/15325024.2013.848614 · 1.03 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
Our aim was to study the mental health consequences of Israeli adolescents' 8-day "Holocaust memorial journey" to Poland.
A survey to ascertain the experience of Israeli child and adolescent psychiatrists and residents in the specialty was conducted. Participants were asked about referrals regarding the memorial journey, and to compare these cases with referrals for other potentially traumatic events, including school "sleep-out" trips.
Fifty child and adolescent psychiatrists and residents participated. According to their collective experience, the adolescents' memorial journey triggered a variety of mental health problems, including psychosis, but only one case of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Judging by the number of referrals, there was a higher rate of mental health problems following the memorial journey than after the annual sleep-out school trip.
Although it may seldom lead to PTSD, the Holocaust memorial journey can be a major stressor for some participating teenagers. Evaluating "high risk" adolescents prior to their planned exposure to likely stressors and conducting large, prospective studies that examine the impact of pre-planned stressors on the lives of adolescents are warranted. Providing support to all adolescents before, during and after exposure to anticipated stressors is important.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
A comprehensive review of the design principles and methodological approaches that have been used to make inferences from the research on disasters in children is needed.
To identify the methodological approaches used to study children’s reactions to three recent major disasters—the September 11, 2001, attacks; the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami; and Hurricane Katrina.
This review was guided by a systematic literature search.
A total of 165 unduplicated empirical reports were generated by the search and examined for this review. This included 83 references on September 11, 29 on the 2004 Tsunami, and 53 on Hurricane Katrina.
A diversity of methods has been brought to bear in understanding children’s reactions to disasters. While cross-sectional studies predominate, pre-event data for some investigations emerged from archival data and data from studies examining non-disaster topics. The nature and extent of the influence of risk and protective variables beyond disaster exposure are not fully understood due, in part, to limitations in the study designs used in the extant research. Advancing an understanding of the roles of exposure and various individual, family, and social factors depends upon the extent to which measures and assessment techniques are valid and reliable, as well as on data sources and data collection designs. Comprehensive assessments that extend beyond questionnaires and checklists to include interviews and cognitive and biological measures to elucidate the negative and positive effects of disasters on children also may improve the knowledge base.
Child and Youth Care Forum 08/2013; 42(4). DOI:10.1007/s10566-013-9211-4 · 1.25 Impact Factor
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