Media Use by Children and Adolescents From New York City 6 Months After the WTC Attack
ABSTRACT Six months after the World Trade Center (WTC) attacks of September 11, 2001 (9/11), a representative sample of New York City students (N = 8,236) in Grades 4 through 12 reported their use of TV, Web, and combined radio and print media regarding the WTC attack. Demographic factors, WTC exposure, other exposure to trauma, and probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) were used to predict intensive use of the 3 types of media. Intensive use was associated with direct exposure to the WTC attack (with the exception of Web use) and to having reported symptoms of PTSD. Stratified analyses indicated that the association between probable PTSD and intensive media use was more consistently present among those who had no direct or familial exposure to the WTC attack. As well, media, particularly TV, was intensively used by children after the WTC attack. Variations existed in the factors associated with intensive media use, which should be considered when planning postdisaster media coverage and advising families.
SourceAvailable from: Carl F Weems[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Background A comprehensive review of the design principles and methodological approaches that have been used to make inferences from the research on disasters in children is needed. Objective To identify the methodological approaches used to study children’s reactions to three recent major disasters—the September 11, 2001, attacks; the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami; and Hurricane Katrina. Methods This review was guided by a systematic literature search. Results A total of 165 unduplicated empirical reports were generated by the search and examined for this review. This included 83 references on September 11, 29 on the 2004 Tsunami, and 53 on Hurricane Katrina. Conclusions A diversity of methods has been brought to bear in understanding children’s reactions to disasters. While cross-sectional studies predominate, pre-event data for some investigations emerged from archival data and data from studies examining non-disaster topics. The nature and extent of the influence of risk and protective variables beyond disaster exposure are not fully understood due, in part, to limitations in the study designs used in the extant research. Advancing an understanding of the roles of exposure and various individual, family, and social factors depends upon the extent to which measures and assessment techniques are valid and reliable, as well as on data sources and data collection designs. Comprehensive assessments that extend beyond questionnaires and checklists to include interviews and cognitive and biological measures to elucidate the negative and positive effects of disasters on children also may improve the knowledge base.Child and Youth Care Forum 08/2013; 42(4). DOI:10.1007/s10566-013-9211-4 · 1.25 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to study the mental health consequences of Israeli adolescents' 8-day "Holocaust memorial journey" to Poland. METHOD: A survey to ascertain the experience of Israeli child and adolescent psychiatrists and residents in the specialty was conducted. Participants were asked about referrals regarding the memorial journey, and to compare these cases with referrals for other potentially traumatic events, including school "sleep-out" trips. RESULTS: Fifty child and adolescent psychiatrists and residents participated. According to their collective experience, the adolescents' memorial journey triggered a variety of mental health problems, including psychosis, but only one case of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Judging by the number of referrals, there was a higher rate of mental health problems following the memorial journey than after the annual sleep-out school trip. CONCLUSIONS: Although it may seldom lead to PTSD, the Holocaust memorial journey can be a major stressor for some participating teenagers. Evaluating "high risk" adolescents prior to their planned exposure to likely stressors and conducting large, prospective studies that examine the impact of pre-planned stressors on the lives of adolescents are warranted. Providing support to all adolescents before, during and after exposure to anticipated stressors is important.Australasian Psychiatry 05/2013; 21(4). DOI:10.1177/1039856213491995 · 0.56 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: School-aged children have limited resources for coping with exposure to high-intensity media coverage of terrorist events. This study explores pupils' meaning-making process of their indirect, media-communicated encounters with a specific terrorist event in Norway. Qualitative in-depth interviews about the July 22, 2011 terror attacks were conducted with 54 pupils aged 6-8 years. Seven months after the attacks, the majority had unanswered questions based on more or less accurate knowledge of the events, and they still experienced fear. The media and peers appeared to be their major source of information and not parents or teachers. These children's narratives, characterized by some detailed facts, limited understanding, and a high degree of fiction, were inadequate for restoring calm and feelings of safety. Examples indicate how teacher-facilitated collaborative activities among pupils dealing with crisis can provide a way to construct meaning-making by stimulating conversations and reflections, and developing the narrative through a process of metacognition can provide for further learning and new insights. Implications for a proactive teacher role are indicated.Psychology Research and Behavior Management 01/2015; 8:51. DOI:10.2147/PRBM.S73685