Combined inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and Src family kinases (SFK) may lead to improved therapeutic effects. We evaluated the combination of dasatinib, an inhibitor of SFK and other kinases, and cetuximab, an anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody.
Patients with advanced solid malignancies received cetuximab intravenously on a standard weekly schedule and dasatinib orally, once daily at 3 dose levels: (1) 100 mg, (2) 150 mg, (3) 200 mg. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies of dasatinib were performed prior to starting cetuximab and following 14 days of treatment.
Twenty-five patients (3 dose level 1; 19 dose level 2; 3 dose level 3) were initially treated. Three patients developed dose-limiting toxicities: 1 at dose level 2 (headache) and 2 at dose level 3 (headache, nausea). Grade 3-4 toxicities in more than 2 patients included: dyspnea (4), vomiting (4), nausea (3), hypersensitivity reactions (3), headache (3) and anemia (3). Twenty-one patients developed headache (8 grade 1; 10 grade 2), which occurred after the loading of cetuximab and lasted 1-3 days. Six additional patients were treated with dasatinib starting 3 days after the loading dose of cetuximab; none developed headache after dasatinib. Dasatinib pharmacokinetics and a transient decrease in SFK PY416 levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells were not altered by cetuximab. Patients with higher plasma TGF-alpha levels had worse progression-free survival.
Dasatinib 150 mg once daily plus weekly cetuximab is recommended for phase II studies. Early-onset headache was ameliorated by starting dasatinib after cetuximab.
"Our group recently completed a Phase I trial combining cetuximab with dasatinib for treatment of advanced solid malignancies (NCT00388427, ClinicalTrials.gov). Seventeen of 25 patients enrolled in our Phase I study were evaluable for response, and 9 had stable disease while head ache was a primary toxicity . We have evaluated molecular correlates in these patients and found that P-SFK levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells were transiently reduced following daily dasatinib dosing (unpublished data). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The epidermal growth factor receptor- (EGFR-) directed antibody, cetuximab, was FDA-approved for the treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) in 2006. Additional EGFR-targeting agents in clinical development for SCCHN include other EGFR-directed antibodies, tyrosine kinase inhibitors and antisense DNA. Although the majority of SCCHN overexpress EGFR, SCCHN clinical responses to EGFR-targeting agents have been modest. Molecular predictors for SCCHN response to EGFR-targeted therapies have not been identified. However, molecular correlate studies in lung cancer and colon cancer, which have EGFR-targeted therapeutics FDA-approved for treatment, may provide insights. We describe candidate predictive markers for SCCHN response to EGFR-targeted therapies and their prevalence in SCCHN. Clinical response will likely be improved by targeted therapy combination treatments. Src family kinases mediate EGFR-dependent and -independent tumor progression pathways in many cancers including SCCHN. Several Src-targeting agents are in clinical development for solid malignancies. Molecular correlate studies for Src-targeting therapies are few and biomarkers correlated with patient response are limited. Identifying SCCHN patients who will respond to combined EGFR- and Src-targeting will require further characterization of molecular correlates. We discuss rationale for EGFR and Src co-targeting for SCCHN treatment and describe recent clinical trials implementing combined Src- and EGFR-targeted therapeutics.
Journal of Oncology 02/2009; 2009(1687-8450):896407. DOI:10.1155/2009/896407
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ovarian carcinoma is the leading cause of death from gynecologic malignancy in the US. Factors such as the molecular heterogeneity of ovarian tumors and frequent diagnosis at advanced stages hamper effective disease treatment. There is growing emphasis on the identification and development of targeted therapies to disrupt molecular pathways in cancer. The epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor is one such protein target with potential utility in the management of ovarian cancer. This paper will discuss contributions of EGF receptor activation to ovarian cancer pathogenesis and the status of EGF receptor inhibitors and EGF receptor targeted therapies in ovarian cancer treatment.
Journal of Oncology 01/2010; 2010(1687-8450):414676. DOI:10.1155/2010/414676
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aberrant activation of the Src family of tyrosine kinases has been implicated in the development and progression of colorectal cancer (CRC). As a result, Src inhibitors are now being studied as possible therapeutic agents to treat metastatic disease. In this review, we discuss the effects of aberrant Src activation in CRC, Src as a target of single-agent drug therapy, and Src as a target of combination therapy with epidermal growth factor receptor inhibition and cytotoxic chemotherapy. The greatest potential for clinically relevant benefit most likely lies in combination regimens. Further evaluation with biomarkers will continue to define the molecular phenotype of patients with CRC who will benefit the most from Src-based therapy.
Clinical Colorectal Cancer 04/2010; 9(2):89-94. DOI:10.3816/CCC.2010.n.012 · 2.81 Impact Factor
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