HIV seroprevalence among orphaned and homeless youth: no place like home.
ABSTRACT We evaluated the combined influences of orphaned status and homelessness on HIV seroprevalence and risk among street-involved Ukrainian youth in 2008.
Systematic, multicity, community-based, cross-sectional assessment.
Time-location sampling was used to identify eligible youth aged 15-24 after city-wide mapping of 91 sites where street-involved youth gathered in Odessa, Kiev, and Donetsk. Universal sampling identified 961 youth in 74 randomly selected sites; 97% consented. Youth reporting one or both parents dead were classified as orphaned; those without a stable residence or sleeping outside their residence at least two nights per week were classified as homeless. Trained staff provided HIV counseling and rapid testing via mobile vans. Adjusted odds ratios (AORs) were calculated using logistic regression, accounting for intracluster homogeneity.
We found 32% (300 of 929) were both orphaned and homeless; 48% either (but not both) homeless [37% (343 of 929)] or orphaned [11% (104 of 929)]; and [20% (182 of 929)] neither orphaned nor homeless. HIV seroprevalences were 7% for neither orphaned/homeless; 16 and 17%, respectively, for either orphaned/homeless; 28% for both orphaned/homeless (P for trend <0.0001). AORs for HIV infection were 1 for neither; 2.3 and 2.4 for either homeless [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.7-2.9] or orphaned (CI 1.8-3.3); 3.3 for both orphaned/homeless (CI 2.3-4.4). Ever-use of injection drugs increased from 15 to 32 to 48% for those who neither, either, or both orphaned and homeless, respectively (P for trend <0.0001).
One of four youths who were both homeless and orphaned was HIV-infected; these youths were significantly more likely to be HIV infected and to report injection drug use than those with adequate housing and living parents.
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ABSTRACT: Human immunodeficiency virus infection is a global crisis that represents a serious health threat, particularly among younger people. Various studies show that both orphan and non-orphan adolescents and youths experience vulnerability to HIV. Nevertheless, the findings hitherto are mixed and inconclusive. The aim of this study, therefore, was to assess the prevalence of parental death and its association with multiple sexual partners among secondary school students for evidence based interventions.BMC Public Health 10/2014; 14(1):1120. DOI:10.1186/1471-2458-14-1120 · 2.32 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background Homelessness during adolescence impacts negatively upon young people's physical and mental wellbeing. To be effective, programs aimed at addressing the health needs of this population must include knowledge of both the presenting and underlying acute and chronic conditions that characterise this high risk group of youth. Methods We undertook a systematic review of the international literature for studies that used validated instruments and techniques to diagnose prevalence rates of physical and mental health disorders in homeless adolescents. Results Twenty-one studies fulfilled the selection criteria. Of these, nine studies examined mental health diagnoses including depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety and substance abuse disorders. With one exception, the remaining twelve studies all related to sexually transmitted infections. Conclusion Homeless adolescents are diagnosed with widely varying rates of mental health disorders and high rates of sexually transmitted infection. Other likely chronic and acute physical conditions appear to be neglected in the published research.Journal of Adolescence 07/2014; 37(5):531–542. DOI:10.1016/j.adolescence.2014.04.003 · 2.05 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The immediate and short-term consequences of adult HIV for affected children are well documented. Little research has examined the long-term implications of childhood adversity stemming from caregiver HIV infection. Through overviews provided by experts in the field, together with an iterative process of consultation and refinement, we have extracted insights from the broader field of child development of relevance to predicting the long-term consequences to children affected by HIV and AIDS. We focus on what is known about the impact of adversities similar to those experienced by HIV-affected children, and for which there is longitudinal evidence. Cautioning that findings are not directly transferable across children or contexts, we examine findings from the study of parental death, divorce, poor parental mental health, institutionalization, undernutrition, and exposure to violence. Regardless of the type of adversity, the majority of children manifest resilience and do not experience any long-term negative consequences. However, a significant minority do and these children experience not one, but multiple problems, which frequently endure over time in the absence of support and opportunities for recovery. As a result, they are highly likely to suffer numerous and enduring impacts. These insights suggest a new strategic approach to interventions for children affected by HIV and AIDS, one that effectively combines a universal lattice of protection with intensive intervention targeted to selected children and families.AIDS (London, England) 07/2014; 28 Suppl 3:S261-S268. DOI:10.1097/QAD.0000000000000328 · 6.56 Impact Factor