Article

Epitope-specific human influenza antibody repertoires diversify by B cell intraclonal sequence divergence and interclonal convergence.

Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232, USA.
The Journal of Immunology (Impact Factor: 5.36). 08/2011; 187(7):3704-11. DOI: 10.4049/jimmunol.1101823
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT We generated from a single blood sample five independent human mAbs that recognized the Sa antigenic site on the head of influenza hemagglutinin and exhibited inhibitory activity against a broad panel of H1N1 strains. All five Abs used the V(H)3-7 and J(H)6 gene segments, but at least four independent clones were identified by junctional analysis. High-throughput sequence analysis of circulating B cells revealed that each of the independent clones were members of complex phylogenetic lineages that had diversified widely using a pattern of progressive diversification through somatic mutation. Unexpectedly, B cells encoding multiple diverging lineages of these clones, including many containing very few mutations in the Ab genes, persisted in the circulation. Conversely, we noted frequent instances of amino acid sequence convergence in the Ag combining sites exhibited by members of independent clones, suggesting a strong selection for optimal binding sites. We suggest that maintenance in circulation of a wide diversity of somatic variants of dominant clones may facilitate recognition of drift variant virus epitopes that occur in rapidly mutating virus Ags, such as influenza hemagglutinin. In fact, these Ab clones recognize an epitope that acquired three glycosylation sites mediating escape from previously isolated human Abs.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: James E Crowe, Jun 24, 2015
0 Followers
 · 
104 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The adaptive immune response selectively expands B- and T-cell clones following antigen recognition by B- and T-cell receptors (BCR and TCR) respectively. Next-generation sequencing is a powerful tool for dissecting the BCR and TCR populations at high-resolution, but robust computational analyses are required to interpret such sequencing. Here, we develop a novel computational approach for BCR repertoire analysis using established next-generation sequencing methods coupled with network construction and population analysis. BCR sequences organize into networks based on sequence diversity, with differences in network connectivity clearly distinguishing between diverse repertoires of healthy individuals and clonally expanded repertoires from individuals with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and other clonal blood disorders. Network population measures defined by Gini Index and cluster sizes quantify the BCR clonality status and are robust to sampling and sequencing depths. BCR network analysis therefore allows the direct and quantifiable comparison of BCR repertoires between samples and intra-individual population changes between temporal or spatially separated samples and over the course of therapy.
    Genome Research 06/2013; 23(11). DOI:10.1101/gr.154815.113 · 13.85 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The development of high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies has enabled large-scale characterization of functional antibody repertoires, a new method of understanding protective and pathogenic immune responses. Important parameters to consider when sequencing antibody repertoires include the methodology, the B-cell population and clinical characteristics of the individuals analysed, and the bioinformatic analysis. Although focused sequencing of immunoglobulin heavy chains or complement determining regions can be utilized to monitor particular immune responses and B-cell malignancies, high-fidelity analysis of the full-length paired heavy and light chains expressed by individual B cells is critical for characterizing functional antibody repertoires. Bioinformatic identification of clonal antibody families and recombinant expression of representative members produces recombinant antibodies that can be used to identify the antigen targets of functional immune responses and to investigate the mechanisms of their protective or pathogenic functions. Integrated analysis of coexpressed functional genes provides the potential to further pinpoint the most important antibodies and clonal families generated during an immune response. Sequencing antibody repertoires is transforming our understanding of immune responses to autoimmunity, vaccination, infection and cancer. We anticipate that antibody repertoire sequencing will provide next-generation biomarkers, diagnostic tools and therapeutic antibodies for a spectrum of diseases, including rheumatic diseases.
    Nature Reviews Rheumatology 12/2014; DOI:10.1038/nrrheum.2014.220 · 10.25 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: High-throughput sequencing allows detailed study of the BCR repertoire postimmunization, but it remains unclear to what extent the de novo identification of Ag-specific sequences from the total BCR repertoire is possible. A conjugate vaccine containing Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) and group C meningococcal polysaccharides, as well as tetanus toxoid (TT), was used to investigate the BCR repertoire of adult humans following immunization and to test the hypothesis that public or convergent repertoire analysis could identify Ag-specific sequences. A number of Ag-specific BCR sequences have been reported for Hib and TT, which made a vaccine containing these two Ags an ideal immunological stimulus. Analysis of identical CDR3 amino acid sequences that were shared by individuals in the postvaccine repertoire identified a number of known Hib-specific sequences but only one previously described TT sequence. The extension of this analysis to nonidentical, but highly similar, CDR3 amino acid sequences revealed a number of other TT-related sequences. The anti-Hib avidity index postvaccination strongly correlated with the relative frequency of Hib-specific sequences, indicating that the postvaccination public BCR repertoire may be related to more conventional measures of immunogenicity correlating with disease protection. Analysis of public BCR repertoire provided evidence of convergent BCR evolution in individuals exposed to the same Ags. If this finding is confirmed, the public repertoire could be used for rapid and direct identification of protective Ag-specific BCR sequences from peripheral blood.
    The Journal of Immunology 11/2014; DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1401405 · 5.36 Impact Factor