The perioperative risk for redo surgical aortic valve replacement (S-AVR) in patients with severe aortic stenosis and prior coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is increased. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) represents an alternative. We assessed the perioperative and mid-term clinical outcome of patients undergoing S-AVR or TAVI.
In a retrospective observational, comparative study, 40 consecutive patients underwent redo operation with S-AVR or TAVI between April 2005 and April 2010. Median sternotomy and extracorporeal circulation were used for S-AVR; TAVI access was transfemoral (n = 27; 67.5%), transapical (n = 11; 27.5%), or transsubclavian (n = 2; 5.0%). Clinical and echocardiographic follow-up was at 30 days and 6 months.
TAVI patients were older (78.5 ± 6 vs 70.6 ± 8 years, p < 0.001) and presented higher logistic (33.5 ± 17 vs 20.2 ± 14, p < 0.001) European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation scores. All-cause mortality was 2.5% in both groups and major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular event rates were comparable (7.5% TAVI vs 17.5% S-AVR, p = 0.311) after 30 days. TAVI was associated with a higher rate of permanent pacemaker implantation (30% vs 0%, p < 0.001) and grade II residual aortic regurgitation in 14%. Incidence of cerebrovascular events was 7.5% in S-AVR vs 2.5% in TAVI (p = 0.61).
In elderly, high-risk patients after prior CABG, conventional aortic valve replacement and TAVI are comparable treatment options with favorable clinical outcome. A redo operation itself does not sufficiently justify a TAVI approach.
"Statistically this reduced surgical trauma is reflected in lower postoperative chest tube drainage and a lower transfusion rate of allogenic blood products in the Redo-TAVI group. Similar results were observed by Strotecky and colleagues, with a reported significantly lower requirement of blood components per patients in the Redo-TAVI group compared to Redo-AVR
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
The aim of this study was to compare outcome of patients with previous cardiac surgery undergoing transapical aortic valve implantation (Redo-TAVI) to those undergoing classic aortic valve replacement (Redo-AVR) by using propensity analysis.
From January 2005 through May 2012, 52 high-risk patients underwent Redo-TAVI using a pericardial xenograft fixed within a stainless steel, balloon-expandable stent (Edwards SAPIEN™). During the same period of time 167 patients underwent classic Redo-AVR. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify covariates among 11 baseline patient variables including the type of initial surgery. Using the significant regression coefficients, each patient’s propensity score was calculated, allowing selectively matched subgroups of 40 patients each. Initial surgery included coronary artery bypass grafting in 30 patients, aortic valve replacement in 7 patients and mitral valve reconstruction in 3 patients in each group. Follow-up was 4 ± 2 years and was 100% complete.
Postoperative chest tube drainage (163 ± 214 vs. 562 ± 332 ml/24 h, p = 0.02) and incidence of early permanent neurologic deficit (0 vs. 13%, p = 0.04) was lower in patients with Redo-TAVI and there was a trend towards improved 30-day survival (p = 0.06). Also we detected a decreased ventilation time (p = 0.04) and lower transfusion rate of allogenic blood products (p ≤ 0.05) in the Redo-TAVI group. At late follow up differences regarding incidence of major adverse events, including death and permanent neurologic deficits (25% vs. 43%, p = 0.01) statistically supported early postoperative findings.
The encouraging results regarding early and long-term outcomes following TAVI in patients with previous cardiac surgery show, that this evolving approach may be particularly beneficial in this patient cohort.
Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery 06/2014; 9(1):99. DOI:10.1186/1749-8090-9-99 · 1.03 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Redo cardiac surgery has an increased risk of morbidity and mortality when compared with the initial operation. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of previous cardiac operations on patients undergoing transapical aortic valve implantation (TA-TAVI).
We analysed data from 566 patients included in the Italian Registry of Transapical Aortic Valve Implantation who underwent TA-TAVI implantation with the Sapien valve (Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine, CA, USA) from April 2008 through May 2011. Of these, 110 patients (19.4%) had already undergone at least one previous cardiac operation with opening of the pericardium (group R) while for 456 patients (80.6%) TA-TAVI was the first cardiac procedure (group F). Data were prospectively collected at each of the 20 participating centres and then sent to a central database for storage and analysis.
Preoperative logistic EuroSCORE was higher in group R (35 ± 18.6 vs. 23.5 ± 11.9%; P < 0.001). Hospital mortality occurred in eight (7.2%) and 36 (7.9%) patients in groups R and F, respectively (P = 0.8). Mean follow-up was 10.4 ± 7.9 months (range: 1-34). Overall 2-year Kaplan-Meier survival was 64.2 ± 9.8 and 75.4 ± 3.5% in groups R and F, respectively (P = 0.69). Incidence of operative complications, postoperative bleeding, pacemaker implantation, myocardial infarction and stroke did not show statistically significant differences between groups. The univariate analysis showed that arterial hypertension, logistic EuroSCORE, porcelain aorta, left ventricular ejection fraction and previous percutaneous coronary interventions were significantly associated with 30-day mortality in group R.
According to our data, patients undergoing TAVI with previous cardiac operations have a higher preoperative risk profile but have similar outcomes when compared with patients undergoing a first operation. In these subset of patients, TAVI is a promising therapeutic option.
European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery: official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery 02/2012; 42(3):480-5. DOI:10.1093/ejcts/ezs027 · 3.30 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Conventional aortic valve replacement (AVR) surgery has been in clinical use since 1960. Results, particularly in high-risk populations such as the very elderly and frail, continue to improve in response to the challenges posed by this growing segment of the patient population. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is a fairly recent development, performed for the first time in 2002. The last decade has seen an exponential growth in the application of this technology in higher-risk populations. Results of recent randomized prospective trials demonstrate both the future promise and current problems of the TAVI approach. Many patients deemed inoperable for AVR have been treated successfully by TAVI. However, elevated procedural and late mortality rates, excessive early and late stroke, and a significant incidence of periprosthetic aortic valve insufficiency and patient-prosthesis mismatch all suggest caution in extending this technology to patients able to undergo conventional AVR with a low risk of early or late complications.
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