The emergence of multidrug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and resistance to current anti-TB drugs call for the discovery and development of new effective anti-TB drugs. TMC207 is the lead candidate of a novel class of antimycobacterial agents, the diarylquinolines, which specifically inhibit mycobacterial ATP synthase and displays high activity against both drug-susceptible and multidrug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. This article covers both synthesis pathways as well as qualitative and quantitative analyses of the structure-activity relationships of the diarylquinoline series on Mycobacterium smegmatis activity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a difficult pathogen to combat and the first-line drugs currently in use are 40-60 years old. The need for new TB drugs is urgent, but the time to identify, develop and ultimately advance new drug regimens onto the market has been excruciatingly slow. On the other hand, the drugs currently in clinical development, and the recent gains in knowledge of the pathogen and the disease itself give us hope for finding new drug targets and new drug leads. In this article we highlight the unique biology of the pathogen and several possible ways to identify new TB chemical leads. The Global Alliance for TB Drug Development (TB Alliance) is a not-for-profit organization whose mission is to accelerate the discovery and development of new TB drugs. The organization carries out research and development in collaboration with many academic laboratories and pharmaceutical companies around the world. In this perspective we will focus on the early discovery phases of drug development and try to provide snapshots of both the current status and future prospects.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: TMC207 is a new antituberculous drug belonging to the diarylquinoline class which very efficiently inhibits the ATP synthase of mycobacteria such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis, one of the most important pathogens in the world. In order to map the amino acid residues involved in the binding of the drug, we have selected in vitro TMC207-resistant mutants from M. tuberculosis and diverse atypical mycobacteria. Six distinct mutations, Asp28 → Gly, Asp28 → Ala, Leu59 → Val, Glu61 → Asp, Ala63 → Pro, and Ile66 → Met, have been identified in the subunit c forming a C ring in the ATP synthase. They were studied by evaluating the levels of resistance that they confer in the selected clones and by using an isogenic complementation system in Mycobacterium smegmatis. The rates of increase of TMC207 MIC values (8- to 133-fold) were interpreted by constructing by homology modeling a structure of the mycobacterial C ring which was used for docking simulations with TMC207. Our results suggest that the residues found to be mutated in the resistant clones, together with a tyrosine specifically conserved at position 64 in mycobacteria, define a cleft located between two adjacent c subunits in the C ring. This cleft, which encompasses the proton-binding site (Glu61), is well fitted to bind TMC207 at the level of the bromoquinoline moiety, with the drug being anchored by several ionic, hydrogen, and halogen bonds with residues Glu61, Tyr64, and Asp28, respectively. These data shed light on the molecular interactions allowing TMC207 to bind specifically and efficiently at the level of the proton-binding site of the mycobacterial C ring.
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