Sox4 cooperates with PU.1 haploinsufficiency in murine myeloid leukemia
ABSTRACT Cooperation of multiple mutations is thought to be required for cancer development. In previous studies, murine myeloid leukemias induced by transducing wild-type bone marrow progenitors with a SRY sex determining region Y-box 4 (Sox4)-expressing retrovirus frequently carried proviral insertions at Sfpi1, decreasing its mRNA levels, suggesting that reduced Sfpi1 expression cooperates with Sox4 in myeloid leukemia induction. In support of this hypothesis, we show here that mice receiving Sox4 virus-infected Sfpi1(ko/+) bone marrow progenitors developed myeloid leukemia with increased penetrance and shortened latency. Interestingly, Sox4 expression further decreased Sfpi1 transcription. Ectopic SOX4 expression reduced endogenous PU.1 mRNA levels in HL60 promyelocytes, and decreased Sfpi1 mRNA levels were also observed in the spleens of leukemic and preleukemic mice receiving Sox4 virus-infected wild-type bone marrow cells. In addition, Sox4 protein bound to a critical upstream regulatory element of Sfpi1 in ChIP assays. Such cooperation probably occurs in de novo human acute myeloid leukemias, as an analysis of 285 acute myeloid leukemia patient samples found a significant negative correlation between SOX4 and PU.1 expression. Our results establish a novel cooperation between Sox4 and reduced Sfpi1 expression in myeloid leukemia development and suggest that SOX4 could be an important new therapeutic target in human acute myeloid leukemia.
SourceAvailable from: Elena Shashova[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Breast cancer is one of four oncology diseases that are most widespread in the world. Moreover, breast cancer is one of leading causes of cancer-related deaths in female population within economically developed regions of the world. So far, detection of new mechanisms of breast cancer development is very important for discovery of novel areas in which therapy approaches may be elaborated. The objective of the present study is to investigate involvement of proteasomes, which cleave up to 90% of cellular proteins and regulate numerous cellular processes, in mechanisms of breast cancer development. Proteasome characteristics in 106 patient breast carcinomas and adjacent tissues, as well as relationships of detected proteasome parameters with clinical-pathological factors, were investigated. Proteasome chymotrypsin-like activity was evaluated by hydrolysis of fluorogenic peptide Suc-LLVY-AMC. The expression of proteasome subunits was studied by Western-blotting and immunohistochemistry. The wide range of chymotrypsin-like activity in tumors was detected. Activity in tumors was higher if compared to adjacent tissues in 76 from 106 patients. Multiple analysis of generalized linear models discovered that in estrogen α-receptor absence, tumor growth was connected with the enhanced expression of proteasome immune subunit LMP2 and proteasome activator PA700 in tumor (at 95% confidence interval). Besides, by this analysis we detected some phenomena in adjacent tissue, which are important for tumor growth and progression of lymph node metastasis in estrogen α-receptor absence. These phenomena are related to the enhanced expression of activator PA700 and immune subunit LMP7. Thus, breast cancer development is connected with functioning of immune proteasome forms and activator PA700 in patients without estrogen α-receptors in tumor cells. These results could indicate a field for search of new therapy approaches for this category of patients, which has the worst prognosis of health recovery.PLoS ONE 10/2014; 9(10):e109933. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0109933 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Sox4 expression is restricted in mammals to embryonic structures and some adult tissues, such as lymphoid organs, pancreas, intestine, and skin. During embryogenesis, Sox4 regulates mesenchymal and neural progenitor survival, as well as lymphocyte and myeloid differentiation, and contributes to pancreas, bone, and heart development. Aberrant Sox4 expression is linked to malignant transformation and metastasis in several types of cancer. To understand the role of Sox4 in the adult organism, we first generated mice with reduced whole-body Sox4 expression. These mice display accelerated aging and reduced cancer incidence. To specifically address a role for Sox4 in adult stem cells, we conditionally deleted Sox4 (Sox4(cKO)) in stratified epithelia. Sox4(cKO) mice show increased skin stem cell quiescence and resistance to chemical carcinogenesis concomitantly with downregulation of cell cycle, DNA repair, and activated hair follicle stem cell pathways. Altogether, these findings highlight the importance of Sox4 in regulating adult tissue homeostasis and cancer.
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ABSTRACT: Since the transcriptional co-activator CITED2 can be overexpressed in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells, we analyzed the consequences of high CITED2 expression in normal and AML cells. CITED2 overexpression in normal CD34(+) cells resulted in enhanced hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) output in vitro, as well as in better hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) engraftability in NSG mice. This was due to an enhanced quiescence and maintenance of CD34(+)CD38(-) HSCs, in part due to an increased expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor CDKN1A. We demonstrated that PU.1 is a critical regulator of CITED2, since PU.1 repressed CITED2 expression in a DNMT3A/B-dependent manner in normal CD34(+) cells. CD34(+) cells from a subset of AML patients displayed higher expression levels of CITED2 as compared to normal CD34(+) HSPCs and knockdown of CITED2 in AML CD34(+) cells led to a loss of long-term expansion, both in vitro as well as in vivo. The higher CITED2 expression resulted from reduced PU.1 activity and/or dysfunction of mutated DNMT3A/B. Collectively, our data demonstrate that increased CITED2 expression results in better HSC maintenance. In concert with low PU.1 levels, this could result in a perturbed myeloid differentiation program that contributes to leukemia maintenance.Leukemia accepted article preview online, 03 September 2014. doi:10.1038/leu.2014.259.Leukemia 09/2014; DOI:10.1038/leu.2014.259 · 9.38 Impact Factor