Article

Linkage Specificity and Role of Properdin in Activation of the Alternative Complement Pathway by Fungal Glycans

Department of Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts, USA.
mBio (Impact Factor: 6.88). 08/2011; 2(5). DOI: 10.1128/mBio.00178-11
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Fungal cell walls are predominantly composed of glucans, mannans, and chitin. Recognition of these glycans by the innate immune system is a critical component of host defenses against the mycoses. Complement, an important arm of innate immunity, plays a significant role in fungal pathogenesis, especially the alternative pathway (AP). Here we determine that the glycan monosaccharide composition and glycosidic linkages affect AP activation and C3 deposition. Furthermore, properdin, a positive regulator of the AP, contributes to these functions. AP activation by glycan particles that varied in composition and linkage was measured by C3a generation in serum treated with 10 mM EGTA and 10 mM Mg2+ (Mg-EGTA-treated serum) (AP specific; properdin functional) or Mg-EGTA-treated serum that lacked functional properdin. Particles that contained either β1→3 or β1→6 glucans or both generated large and similar amounts of C3a when the AP was intact. Blocking properdin function resulted in 5- to 10-fold-less C3a production by particulate β1→3 glucans. However, particulate β1→6 glucans generated C3a via the AP only in the presence of intact properdin. Interestingly, zymosan and glucan-mannan particles (GMP), which contain both β-glucans and mannans, also required properdin to generate C3a. The β1→4 glycans chitin and chitosan minimally activated C3 even when properdin was functional. Finally, properdin binding to glucan particles (GP) and zymosan in serum required active C3. Properdin colocalized with bound C3, suggesting that in the presence of serum, properdin bound indirectly to glycans through C3 convertases. These findings provide a better understanding of how properdin facilitates AP activation by fungi through interaction with the cell wall components.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Charles Specht, Aug 29, 2015
0 Followers
 · 
155 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Meningococcal vaccines containing factor H binding protein (fHbp) are in clinical development. fHbp binds human fH, which enables the meningococcus to resist complement-mediated bacteriolysis. Previously, we found that chimeric human IgG1 mouse anti-fHbp monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) had human complement-mediated bactericidal activity only if the MAb inhibited fH binding. Since IgG subclasses differ in their ability to activate complement, we investigated the role of human IgG subclasses on antibody functional activity. We constructed chimeric MAbs in which three different murine fHbp-specific binding domains were each paired with human IgG1, IgG2, or IgG3. Against a wild-type group B isolate, all three IgG3 MAbs, irrespective of their ability to inhibit fH binding, had bactericidal activity that was >5-fold higher than the respective IgG1 MAbs, while the IgG2 MAbs had the least activity. Against a mutant with increased fHbp expression, the anti-fHbp MAbs elicited greater C4b deposition (classical pathway) and greater bactericidal activity than against the wild-type strain, and the IgG1 MAbs had similar or greater activity than the respective IgG3 MAbs. The bactericidal activity against both wild-type and mutant strains also was dependent, in part, on activation of the alternative complement pathway. Thus, at lower epitope density in the wild-type strain, the IgG3 anti-fHbp MAbs had the greatest bactericidal activity. At a higher epitope density in the mutant, the IgG1 MAbs had similar or greater bactericidal activity than the IgG3 MAbs, and the activity was less dependent on the inhibition of fH binding than at a lower epitope density.
    Infection and immunity 11/2011; 80(1):187-94. DOI:10.1128/IAI.05956-11 · 4.16 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Neisseria meningitidis binds the complement downregulating protein, factor H (fH), which enables the organism to evade host defenses. Two fH ligands, fHbp and NspA, are known to bind specifically to human fH. We developed a human fH transgenic infant rat model to investigate the effect of human fH on meningococcal bacteremia. At 18 h after intraperitoneal challenge with 560 CFU of group B strain H44/76, all 19 human fH-positive rats had positive blood cultures compared to 0 of 7 human fH-negative control littermates (P < 0.0001). Human fH-positive infant rats also developed bacteremia after challenge with isogenic mutants of H44/76 in which genes encoding fHbp and NspA (ΔfHbp ΔNspA mutant) or the lipooligosaccharide sialyltransferase (Δlst mutant) had been inactivated. A fully encapsulated ΔfHbp ΔNspA Δlst mutant unable to sialylate lipooligosaccharide or bind human fH via the known fH ligands did not cause bacteremia, which argued against global susceptibility to bacteremia resulting from random integration of the transgene into the rat genome. In vitro, the wild-type and ΔfHbp ΔNspA mutant strains were killed by as little as 20% wild-type infant rat serum. The addition of 3 μg of human fH/ml permitted survival of the wild-type strain in up to 60% infant rat serum, whereas ≥33 μg of human fH/ml was required to rescue the ΔfHbp ΔNspA mutant. The ability of meningococci lacking expression of fHbp and NspA to cause invasive disease in human fH transgenic rats and to survive in wild-type infant rat serum supplemented with human fH indicates an additional human fH-dependent mechanism of evasion of innate immunity.
    Infection and immunity 11/2011; 80(2):643-50. DOI:10.1128/IAI.05604-11 · 4.16 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Glucan particles (GPs) are Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell walls chemically extracted so they are composed primarily of particulate β-1,3-D-glucans. GPs are recognized by Dectin-1 and are potent complement activators. Mice immunized with Ag-loaded GPs develop robust Ab and CD4(+) T cell responses. In this study, we examined the relative contributions of Dectin-1 and complement to GP phagocytosis and Ag-specific responses to immunization with OVA encapsulated in GPs. The in vitro phagocytosis of GPs by bone marrow-derived dendritic cells was facilitated by heat-labile serum component(s) independently of Dectin-1. This enhanced uptake was not seen with serum from complement component 3 knockout (C3(-/-)) mice and was also inhibited by blocking Abs directed against complement receptor 3. After i.p. injection, percent phagocytosis of GPs by peritoneal macrophages was comparable in wild-type and Dectin-1(-/-) mice and was not inhibited by the soluble β-glucan antagonist laminarin. In contrast, a much lower percentage of peritoneal macrophages from C3(-/-) mice phagocytosed GPs, and this percentage was further reduced in the presence of laminarin. Subcutaneous immunization of wild-type, Dectin-1(-/-), and C3(-/-) mice with GP-OVA resulted in similar Ag-specific IgG(1) and IgG(2c) type Ab and CD4(+) T cell lymphoproliferative responses. Moreover, while CD4(+) Th1 and Th2 responses measured by ELISPOT assay were similar in the three mouse strains, Th17 responses were reduced in C3(-/-) mice. Thus, although Dectin-1 is necessary for optimal phagocytosis of GPs in the absence of complement, complement dominates when both an intact complement system and Dectin-1 are present. In addition, Th-skewing after GP-based immunization was altered in C3(-/-) mice.
    The Journal of Immunology 05/2012; 189(1):312-7. DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1200603 · 5.36 Impact Factor
Show more